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Introduction to Managing Human Resources
Productivity of an organization depends on efficiency of employees and operational management. Health services are one of the fundamental sectors of the society. It aims to provide curative and rehabilitative care to patients with optimum level of services. There are three components of the health care: Human resources, physical capital and consumables. Proper management of human resources is a deciding factor for quality health care. In order to deliver health services, management takes into consideration various aspects of clinical and non-clinical staff such as their recruitment and selection, training, performance appraisal and other factors. Present report is prepared to elucidate the management of human resources in organizations. For that purpose, health and social care unit St. Patrick's Nursing home is taken into account.
1.1 Factors to be considered when planning recruitment of individuals to work in health and social care
For successful health care system, properly trained and competent staff is essential. While planning to appoint eligible and capable staff in the organization, following factors are to be kept in consideration:
Requirement: Fundamental step considering the management plans recruitment and selection of staff. By scrutinizing the number of existing employees, vacancy of employees are determined (Cooper, 2007).
Financial resources: Both number and cost of managing human resources are key concern of employer while recruiting employees. The organizations are both Government funded and also use employer-paid system. To get appropriate supply of trained staff this attribute is also taken into account.
Eligibility: Health care sector is an industry in which service providers are closely linked with patients and vulnerable people to provide them intimate care. To attain the efficiency, equity and quality objectives, skillful, knowledgeable and experienced employees are hired. Employees with desired qualification such as associate degree in medical are hired (Day, 2007).
Competency: With the advancement in technology, there is the paradigm shift in process adopted in cure and treatment of the patients. New equipment and methods are being used. For that purpose, staff with the respective competency is required that possess knowledge of working with those equipment. Further, for purposes like assisting professional and doctors in their treatments and giving proper care to patients, the applicants are required to be competent.
1.2 Ways in which relevant legislative and policy frameworks of the home country influence the selection, recruitment and employment of individuals
Government and legislative bodies frame laws and regulations in their countries to ensure the protection of employees and consumers in various aspects. ST Patrick's Nursing Home abides all the laws framed by the agencies. By following all these rules and regulations, the nursing home intends to give equal services and opportunities irrespective of social, economic and cultural background. It imparts significant impact on functioning and strategy framed by the management to run the organization (Holyoak, 2003).
1978 Uniform Guidelines on Employees Selection procedures: The law is framed to ensure that recruitment process adopted by St. Patrick's Nursing home withstand the validation tests with proper use of the procedure.
Civil Rights Act of 1964: This law ensures that while pursuing the recruitment process, there is no discrimination made on the grounds of race, color, sex, religion or national origin. It also prohibits the discrimination of any kind in the practices, procedures and the policies of the organization.
Abiding the laws of equal pay act 1963 and fair labor standards, the organization fulfills legal parameters such as non discrimination in payment on the basis of gender and ensures that employees are provided with minimum salary and other work conditions which they are entitled to as per the legal norms (King and Lawley, 2012).
St. Patrick's nursing home embraces diversity among work culture by encouraging non discrimination in recruitment and appointment of the candidates. It leads to enhancement of productivity and efficiency of the organization.
1.3 Different approaches that may be used to ensure selection of best individuals for work in health and social care
In order to recruit most eligible and suitable employees, different approaches are used by St. Patrics organization (Martin, 2005). Adopting following approaches, optimum selection can be ensured:
- By adopting rigorous method of selection that is creating the specified job Performa with description of the job profile, job description and person's specification, capable candidate from the pool of applicants can be selected. Further, after selecting eligible applicants, capability of candidates is tested by series of interview by different managers of varied department. Through this, various attributes of the candidates can be tested (Robbins, 2009).
- Along with the conventional method of the selection, the candidates are required to give the practical test which judges their abilities to give care to the patients.
- Clinical and non-clinical staff of the health care institute is endowed with number of tasks such as assisting professional doctors, keeping the record of patient's data, addressing the needs and requirement of patients without any delays and they are also required to take some decision in lack of supervision at the time of emergency. All these qualities are needed to be possessed by the applicants (Ruiz, 2004).
2.1 Theories of how individuals interact in groups in relation to types of teams that work in health and social care
In a health sector organization like St Patrick's nursing home, tasks and works are distributed among clinical and non-clinical staff. The teams are made by assigning them the specific task to achieve defined targets and goals. These teams work under the supervision of the managers. Ways of interaction and coordination differ with respect to the teams and groups. In each team and group there is different way of process adopted due to the difference in the nature of targets and tasks. Following are the ways in which team can interact with each other:
- Team with clinical staff includes nursing section who are directly involved in care and treatment of the patients. In this team, the horizontal conversation is informal in nature but the vertical conversation in the form of receiving orders and instructions is formal in nature (Schermerhorn and et.al, 2011).
- Team which includes the board of directors and the management team frame the policies and strategies by analyzing complete scenario of the organization. In this, the interaction is formal where the members share their opinions and ideas to bring improvement in services and profitability of the organization.
- Multidisciplinary team is the one in which the people with diverse professional background work together to improve the patient care by working together and discussing alternative and competing perspectives.
2.2 approaches that may be used to develop effective team working in health and social care
Effective team work helps in increasing the efficiency of the employees and also reduces the levels of stress. Realizing the importance of working together as a team, the organization encourages the team building.
- Strong leadership: Working in health and social care organization is a continuous job which demands high level of energy and preciseness. Under the absence of strong leader, management runs in a haphazard manner and creates stressful environment which further affects the productivity and services provided to clients. New CEO is appointed to bring wave of new energy by clearly stating the objectives and goals and supervising the teams (Shapira, 2002).
- Communication: By promoting effective communication in team, efficiency can be enhanced. Better coordination among employees brings innovative and creative ideas for care of patients and resolves problems easily in an optimum manner.
- Motivation and inspiration: To drive the better results and optimum level of performance of the employees, the manager adopts certain methods to motivate and inspire them such as Herzberg model and Maslow model benefits in keeping the employee's spirit high and making them dedicated towards work (McGinnis, n.d.).
- Grievances readdress: In every organization, employees faces some issues and problems. By addressing their disputes and conflicts in the efficient manner, it encourages the team work.
- To motivate the members of the organization, the manager gives them the task to accomplish in the specific time frame. This enhances the coordination and the degree of trust among the employees (Einarsen, Aasland and Skogstad, 2007).
- Working together and achievement of tasks increases their trust and motivates them to work with more dedication and stay longer.
3.1 ways in which the performance of individuals working in health and social care can be monitored
Each individual working in the health and social sector are given certain duties and responsibilities to perform. The productivity of the organization depends on efficiency of the employees. For that purpose, measuring performance is the essential component of the management. Work of employees is assessed differently in terms of quality and quantity by using different tools.
- The management assigns different works and responsibilities to employees. The performance of the employees can be assessed by comparing the given goals and targets against targets achieved in the quantitative terms.
- It is evaluated by checking records kept by the staff with respect to the details of patients and the degree of accuracy and promptness in assisting the professional doctors (Bloisi, Cook and Hunsaker, 2007).
- Staff fundamental duty is to take care of patient's needs and requirement. They are required to provide them with the intimate care to give them the best treatment and optimum care. To evaluate their performance in terms of the services provided by them, the evaluators seek feedback from the patients and the family members who are attending them for 24 hours.
- Staff including nurse's has prime duty to assist their doctors in their treatments and follow their guidance precisely and sincerely. Also, they need to assess the feedbacks from their respective doctors and kept the record of same.
3.2 Ways to identify individual training and development needs
Identifying development and training needs is the fundamental step to increase efficiency of the employees and also enhance the productivity of the organization. This is also essential to provide better patient care by removing the flaws in management and working (Hooke, 2007). Following are the steps involved in identifying training and development needs:
- Evaluating business goals: Evaluating organization’s objectives and business goals helps in identifying the training and development needs of the individuals.
- Monitoring the quality of performance: The assessment of the performance of the individuals in different perspectives and on the qualitative and quantitative aspects helps in realizing the gaps between assigned tasks and the targets achieved. This brings awareness among the employers to minimize the gaps and conduct training and development sessions to enhance skills and talents of the employers by adopting different methods and ways (Robbins and et.al, 2013).
- Scrutinizing the individual's traits: One of the most effectual methods to realize the need of the training and development of the individual is scrutinizing of the traits of the employees. It is done through the SWOT analysis. In this, the strengths of the employers in the particular is field is identified so that they can be assigned task in the related field. Adopting this method also helps in realizing the problem domain so that it can be addressed and treated well by the employers.
- By closely measuring the performance and the traits of the individual, the training and development need of the employees is identified and then the effective methods are used to address the problem domains.
3.3 Different strategies for promoting the continuing development of individuals in the health and social care workplace
The continuous advancements in the technology have also trickled down its positive impact in the health sector in the form of improving the ways of treatment and cure. To match pace with the continuous growth in the health sector and provide better services to their patients, the continuous development of the staff is essential. For that purpose, the management adopts these strategies:
- The frequent performance appraisals helps the management to check the proficiency level of the employees and it further identifies the productivity of the organization.
- In order to increase the adaptability with the new advanced equipment and to enhance their knowledge and skills, the organization conducts many training programs and development sessions. It helps them to acquire better understanding of resources which they are using (Guest, 2004).
- By conducting the counseling and mentoring by the expertise and specialists in the field. It guides and motivates the employees for the better career progression. It also provides them training for the better connectivity with the patients so that they can understand the needs and requirements of the vulnerable and patients for better care and treatment.
- Conducting the apprenticeships, seminars and conferences gives exposure to the employees towards the advanced section in the same field. It enables them to learn and use technology such as advarnced equipment and high tech methods.
- Inspiring from the Maslow’s and Herzberg's motivation theory, the organization seeks development by motivating and inspiring employees by using different methods such as increasing their wages and salary and providing them with better work culture. These factors contribute significantly in the development.
- Performance based payment is the effectual method adopted by the organization to improve efficiency and bring development in their work. When the incentives and rewards are given to employees for their achievements, the employees get motivated to improve their skills and talents.
4.1 Theories of leadership that apply to the health and social care workplace
Health and social care undergo different situations and managers are required to adopt different leadership models to process operational management effectively and drive better results. Different leadership models used by manager using pragmatic approach help in resolving problems and handles effectively.
- Behavioral theory: According to this theory, the leaders possess different behavior and attitude with respect to implementation of the tasks and undergoing the duties and responsibilities as a leader (Neville, Bell and Mengüç, 2005). As mentioned in the scenario of St Patrick's nursing home, this situation was not under the control of the leader. Employee turnover was increasing considerably, profits was decreasing, the complaints from the patients and their family members was increasing in the fast pace which was affecting the goodwill and the image of the organization. Difference in the behavior brings changes in execution of the tasks and works. The theory applied in the mentioned case depicts applicability with the change in the leader that is changing CEO (Firth, 2013).
- Situational theory: It refers to adoption of different leadership style by the single leader in the different situation to drive better results and adapt in the existing scenario. For instance as a new CEO, to run the organization effectively the transaction leadership style is used. This leadership styles involves employees and their opinions by assigning them the specific task to accomplish (Watson and Korczynski, 2011). At the time when organization fails to address the needs of the patients and their family members, management uses the participative leadership model which means that with the involvement of the opinion and ideas of the employee’s better strategies can be framed to give optimum care. In this way, management uses transformation leadership style to bring change and Laissez faire at the crucial times.
4.2 Ways in which working relationship are managed
Degree and health of the relation constructs between the employees of different level in the organization impacts the efficiency and the productivity in the significant manner. To manage the working relationship is the crucial task and for that various effective steps are inculcated in the process (Chandan, 2004).
- After employing eligible and capable employees in the organization, the required to undertake training and development process. In this step, along with assigning them with job and duties, they make familiar with the values and principles of the organization on which the organization is working. Effective execution of this step creates foundation of better work culture.
- Encouraging team work: To manage the relationship among the employees in the horizontal manner, the team work is encouraged so that the values such as the trust, honesty, cooperation and coordination develops among the employees. This results in increasing productivity of the organization (Cennamo and Gardner, 2008).
- Resolution of problems: By addressing the issues of the employees and resolving their problems and disputes, the vertical relation between employer and employee is maintained.
4.3 Ways in which own development has been influenced by management approaches encountered in own experience
Undergoing the various management approaches has brought significant development in various aspects of the personality. These developments are considerably seen in these three aspects:
- Leadership: Adopting situational approach theory and the pragmatic way of leadership has developed sense of applicability in me. This has also enhanced my skills to pursue it effectively (Carmeli, 2005).
- Team work: Adopting different team building models has developed the effective team work attribute in me.
- Recruitment: To appoint the most suitable and eligible applicant I have adopted the rigorous method of recruitment. This has enabled me to increase efficiency of the organization significantly (Dredge, 2006).
From the present report it can be concluded that management of the human resources effectively leads to enhance quality of the patient care. Considering various components such as effective recruitment training, development and leadership drives to better performance and result in increased productivity. St. Patrick's nursing home brought the paradigm shift in the operational and human resource management. By adopting the rigorous method of recruitment and selection, the organization has hired suitable employees to offer personalized and thoughtful services (Schermerhorn and et.al., 2011). Further, the use of different leadership theories and application motivational theories has helped the management in penetrating positive changes which has trickled down in improving the patient care. It has also enhanced the productivity in the curative measures and treatment adopted by the management.
- Bloisi, W., Cook, C.W. and Hunsaker, P.L., 2007. Management and organisational behaviour.
- Carmeli, A., 2005. The relationship between organizational culture and withdrawal intentions and behavior. International Journal of Manpower.
- Cennamo, L. and Gardner, D., 2008. Generational differences in work values, outcomes and person-organisation values fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
- Cooper, L., 2007. Positive Organizational Behavior. Pine Forge Press.
- Day, D., 2007. Structuring the Organization for Leadership Development. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 4(2).
- Dredge, D., 2006. Policy networks and the local organisation of tourism.Tourism management. 27(2).
- Einarsen, S., Aasland, M.S. and Skogstad, A., 2007. Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly. 18(3).
- Firth, R., 2013. Elements of social organisation. Routledge.
- Guest, D.E., 2004. The psychology of the employment relationship: An analysis based on the psychological contract. Applied psychology.
- Holyoak, L., 2003. Body and Organization. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 24(6).
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