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Organisational behaviour is related to the individuals behaviours and activities in the organisation such as – predicting, understanding, etc. It is all about employees working in the organisation – how they act or behave, how they perform daily operations and how they deal with different situations at workplace (Bolino and et. al., 2013). Marks and Spencer which is a British international company established in 1884 has been taken in this report. Impact of organisational, culture, power and politics on employees and overall structure is also explained. Further, content theory and process theory of motivation to motivate individuals is described in this project. Effective team and how it is better from ineffective team is also mentioned. Philosophies and concepts on organisational behaviour in administration is also explained.
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Culture, politics and power play an important role in any organisation, as all these components impacts daily operations and regulate the environment within the workplace. Impact of politics, power and culture instantly affect the structure of organisation. In context to Marks and Spencer it affects components of organisational structure which are – centralisation, chain of command, decentralisation, work specialisation, span of controls and departmentalization.
In every organisation there is different culture. Different types of employees have different backgrounds, values, beliefs, customs, traditions, etc. Organisation culture refers to the assumptions, beliefs and values which determines how individuals act at the workplace. In context to Marks and Spencer – the company has unique culture which gives outlines and guidelines for the activities of individuals in the organisation. To define culture in Marks and Spencer Handy's typology has been used which is explained below (Carpenter, Berry and Houston, 2014).
In context to Marks and Spencer task culture will be mote effective as it help in performing assigned projects or task by working together and solving issues related to that task. It also help in identifying individuals with good skills and knowledge.
In an organisation power refers to the ability which influence individuals and overall working of the administration. Power is advantageous in Marks and Spencer when managers provide different task to individuals and encourage them to complete those assigned projects. It is their responsibility to guide and provide directions to them, for achieving organisational goals (Fisher and To, 2012. French and Raven's five types of power are explained to describe power in the organisation.
In context to M&S referent power will be effective as, it has great influence on the overall organisation.
Politics refers to the use of power in the organisation to attain different changes which are beneficial for the administration. It can be informal and formal. Effective politics assist an organisation in improving employees relations and improve their performance. While unhealthy politics lead to demotivation of individuals and increases conflicts in the organisation.
Motivation is the inward process which encourages individuals to perform their roles and responsibilities, in order to attain desired goals and objectives. It is very important to motivate individuals in Marks and Spencer to accomplish organisational objectives. Here both content and process theory of motivation are explained under.
There are various content theories of motivation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is taken in Marks and Spencer to motivate individuals.
This theory was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. In this theory individuals tries to fulfil higher needs when lower needs are satisfied (Greenberg, ed., 2013). It is categorised into five different needs.
Process theory is a method of ideas which describes how an organisation develops and changes. There are different process theories of motivation. Vroom's expectancy theory is describes here.
This theory was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. It concentrates on results instead of needs, in the organisation (Miao, and et. al., 2013). This theory involves three different variables which are – instrumentality, expectancy and valence.
In context to Marks and Spencer the manager should provide rewards to best employees, interrelate the preferred results with the decided performance levels, and give challenging or dynamic jobs to motivate employees.
Team refers to group of employees in an organisation working together for goal accomplishment (Moore and et. al., 2012). It can be formed with individuals having good quality, skills and knowledge.
In Marks and Spencer different types of teams are formed to perform various tasks and achieve desired goals in the organisation. These teams are mentioned below.
Team development is essential to attain organisational objectives in the organisation. This model was developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. This model is used in M&S to motivate individuals. It involves five stages.
Organisational behaviour concepts:- Organisational behaviour is based on different fundamental concepts which involves behaviours of both organisation and individuals. It is mainly categorised in two elements – individuals nature and organisation nature. Nature of individuals include basic qualities (Miner, 2015). Nature of employees is affected by different factors in the organisation such as – perception, individual difference, value of a person, motivation, etc. While nature of organisation defines its business objectives, employees standards, etc. Factors which affect the organisation's nature are – mutual interest, social system and ethics.
Path goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert J. House in 1971. This theory is supported by Vroom's expectancy theory. It defines a leader's behaviour which is best for the individuals and suitable for the situation or organisational environment to accomplish prescribed objectives. In context to Marks and Spencer the objective of applying path goal theory is to improve individuals empowerment, satisfaction and motivations, in order to increase their efficiency and make them productive. With the help of this theory employees are inspired through leaders and and perform best as according to the directions provided to achieve desired goals. It involves three steps by which it motivate individuals in the organisation which are explained under.
The first step in path goal theory is to determine employees and environment characteristics in which the organisation is operating (Pinder, 2014). The leaders should identify members needs and requirements. Determining employees needs will make them happy as they are valued in the organisation. Further the leader should determine environmental features by considering following points in M&S.
After identifying environment and employees characteristics the second step is to select a leadership behaviour to motivate and support individuals in M&S. The leader can use four styles of leadership.
It is the last step in path goal theory to motivate individuals. In context to M&S the leader should define proper goals to employees. Clear paths must be provide to them, in order to attain goals easily (Chance, 2013). The leader should remove all hurdles, obstacles and hindrances occur in goal accomplishment. Lastly, employees must be provided proper support to complete the given tasks and achieve organisational goals.
It is concluded from the above project report that organisation power, politics and culture are very essential and influence an organisation both negatively and positively. Content theory and process theory motivates employees in the organisation and encourage them to accomplish prescribed goals. Further, different team assist in performing various operations in the administration. Concepts and philosophies to organisation behaviour assist in motivating employees.
Books and journals
Bolino, M.C., and et. al., 2013. Exploring the dark side of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 34(4). pp.542-559.
Carpenter, N.C., Berry, C.M. and Houston, L., 2014. A meta‐analytic comparison of self‐reported and other‐reported organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 35(4). pp.547-574.
Chance, P., 2013. Introduction to educational leadership & organizational behavior. Routledge.
Fisher, C.D. and To, M.L., 2012. Using experience sampling methodology in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 33(7). pp.865-877.
French, S.L. and Holden, T.Q., 2012. Positive organizational behavior: A buffer for bad news. Business Communication Quarterly. 75(2). pp.208-220.
Greenberg, J. ed., 2013. Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Routledge.
Harms, P.D. and Luthans, F., 2012. Measuring implicit psychological constructs in organizational behavior: An example using psychological capital. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 33(4). pp.589-594.
Miao, Q., and et. al., 2013. The relationship between ethical leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Linear or curvilinear effects?. Journal of business ethics. 116(3). pp.641-653.
Miner, J.B., 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
Moore, C., and et. al., 2012. Why employees do bad things: Moral disengagement and unethical organizational behavior. Personnel Psychology. 65(1). pp.1-48.
Morgeson, F.P., and et. al., 2013. Extending corporate social responsibility research to the human resource management and organizational behavior domains: A look to the future. Personnel Psychology. 66(4). pp.805-824.
Pinder, C.C., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.
Podsakoff, P.M. and House, R.J., 2013. Leadership effectiveness: Past perspectives and future directions for research. In Organizational behavior (pp. 55-92). Routledge.
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