Organizational Behavior studies the factors that impact the individuals, groups and structures in an organization. The purpose of such a study is to apply such knowledge towards improving the effectiveness of the organization. It gives knowledge of how individuals and groups behave in organizations and examines the current theories and their applications in managing behavior at the workplace. This report shows light on what will be the impact of acquisition of Abbey College by City College, on the employees. The report also gives suggestions on what kind of leadership style and motivational theories can the new principal use.
LO1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND CULTURE
Organizational structure and culture are dependent on each other. The management structure defines the behavior, ethics and attitudes, which create the work culture. The behavior of the employees largely depends on the hierarchical structure, and the way company allocates power and authority. If Mr. Wakefield decides that the decision making power be with him i.e. if he keeps the new organizational structure highly centralized, then it may result in the employees losing interest in the job, becoming dissatisfied and eventually leaving the organization. But on the other hand, if he decides to share the decision making power with the employees, it will result in the employees being satisfied with the job and organization, they will be happy with their work, and the employee turnover will be very low (Armstrong and Stephens, 2005).
The hierarchical structure of the two colleges will change because of the merger. He will have to be careful and will have to pay attention while making the hierarchical structure of the college, because the big the hierarchical structure, the more will be the decision making power with the top management and the employees will lose interest and satisfaction from the job.
There will be many factors that Mr. Wakefield will have to take into consideration that will be affecting the individual behavior of the employees of the two colleges at work.
LO2 APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
The leadership style that Mr. Wakefield will adopt in the new college will prove detrimental for the employee satisfaction and turnover. There are many leadership styles, from which he can select:
Authoritarian Style: Authoritative leader keeps a strict and close control over the followers by closely regulating the policies the procedures given to the followers. These types of leaders believe in making a distinct professional relationship.
Participative Style: In this style, the leader shares the decision making power with the followers, but the final decision making power rests with him only. But this leadership style keeps the employees happy and satisfied. This way they feel like they are a part of the organization and put their maximum efforts to ensure that the decisions that they make are useful towards the achievement of objectives of the organization (Nenaber, 2010).
Mr. Wakefield must use the participatory style of leadership style, because this leadership style gives the maximum satisfaction to the employees as this style allows the employees to be a part of the decision making process. By using this style, he can ensure that the employees will give their best in every task that they perform. This way every time the college will get the best results.
Organizational theory states that everything is in order and that nothing can be large enough to create a chaos. It supports the management because it a set of theories, which if followed help the management in taking decisions and maintaining relations with the employees. If these theories are followed properly then it helps both the managers as well as the employees in achievement of effective performance. Organizational theories like the Scientific Management Approach states that the workers’ selection must be based on scientific grounds, the management and labor must support each other rather than to fight with each other, there should be scientific training of the workers. According to the Administrative theory by Fayol, management is considered as a set of planning, organizing, training, commanding and coordinating functions (Fauske and Raybould, 2005).
The organizational theories if followed and executed well, contribute in the success of the organization by strengthening the practice of management and manipulating the personnel of the organization.
There are many theories developed to explain the organizations and their structures:
Scientific Management Theory: The theory’s main objective was improving the economic efficiency, especially the labor productivity. According to the theory, by optimizing and simplifying jobs, the productivity of the employees will increase; the workers and management must cooperate with each other (Gibb, 2000).
The Human Relations Approach: This theory states that human beings are not interested in financial gains only. They also need recognition and appreciation. An organization works not only through formal relations, but also through informal relations. The employees need a high degree of job security and job satisfaction.
Mr. Wakefield can use the Human Relations approach, because a college has a large number of teaching staff who like to be recognized and awarded.
LO 3 WAYS OF USING MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Leadership style is the notion of motivation. The impacts that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organization in periods of change are as follows:
Transformational Leadership: A transformational leader is a person who is not limited by his or her followers’ perceptions. The main objective of this type of leader is to facilitate change. These leaders challenge and inspire their followers with a sense of purpose and excitement. Managers who adopt this leadership style focus on developing supportive relationships with the employees rather than using incentives or other perks to motivate change (Roberts, 2013).
Transactional Leadership: These leaders focus on motivating the followers through a system of rewards and punishments. This type of leader identifies the needs of their followers and gives rewards o satisfy those needs in exchange of certain level of performance. They focus on improving the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are more focused on following the existing rules than making changes to the organization.
In the present scenario, the best leadership style for Mr. Wakefield is to adopt the Transformational Leadership style, as the employees are going through a transformational phase. They were employees of two different colleges, but will now be working together. The job of a transformational leader is to help the employees in changing. His leadership style will be crucial as only that can help the employees in understanding and accepting the change.
There are many motivational theories, but the most popular and applicable ones are the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
It is also known as Theory of Motivation. It describes the pattern that a person’s motivation moves through. Physiological, safety, belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization needs constitute the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy.
According to the theory, as lower needs are met, those at high levels become more important. The manager can apply this theory, when there is entry of a new employee in the organization then the employee should be motivated enough towards the basic needs. An employee’s career oriented attitude can be said to be the self-actualization need (Reis and Pena, 2001).
Application: Mr. Wakefield can implement this theory as there will be many new employees in the college. The new employees must be motivated towards the basic needs. The self-actualization is the stage where the employee will mostly be concerned about his job.
Herzberg’s Motivation Theory
This theory is also known as Two-factor theory. According to the theory, there are some factors in the workplace which cause job satisfaction; and others that causes dissatisfaction. It was proposed and developed by Fredrick Herzberg. The factors that cause satisfaction are known as motivators, while those which cause dissatisfaction are known as hygiene factors. The manager must try to create an environment in a way that people can try to motivate themselves. This theory is applicable in a company where there is a specialized work performance for enabling significant achievement (Marrewijk and Timmers, 2003).
Application: An environment must be created by Mr. Wakefield in such a way that the employees motivate themselves. He should take care of the hygiene factors like the salary, job security, pay and benefits, etc all play a very important role in satisfying the employees.
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X assumes that the average person does not like to work and tries to avoid it. He has no ambition and wants no responsibility. People work only for money and security. While Theory Y assumes that work can be as natural as play and rest, most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.
Application: The applicability and usefulness of the Theory X and Theory Y for Mr. Wakefield will be when the employees will lack the ambition, then theory X can be used. And when the workers will be naturally determined and are accountable, then Theory Y can be used.
Mr. Wakefield will have to create an environment where the workers are provided with opportunities; where they can motivate themselves and achieve the desired goals, because researchers have found that internal motivating factors prove to be far more efficient than any other external motivating force. He himself will have to act as a motivating force for the employees. He will need to identify the different types of workers in the college, as there may be some who are excellent employees, while there will be some who will be average employees (Lyons, 2006).
In this case, Herzberg’s Two Factor theory will be very important for Mr. Wakefield, as he can analyze the different motivation and hygiene factors that will be useful in keeping the employees highly motivated. He will need to identify what are the factors that motivate the employees and what are the hygiene factors. The hygiene factors are the most important, as if they are not taken care of, it can turn positive satisfaction and motivation to dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors may include the college’s policies, quality of supervision, employees’, salary, job security, etc. while the motivational factors include achievement, career advancement, etc.
LO4 DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK IN ORGANIZATIONS
The agglomeration of people (employees), where they accept a task that is common to all, and are interdependent on each other for the performance of the team and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment is known as a Group. Nature of group and group behavior in an organization are as follows:
Normative view describes about how the activities must be carried out by the members of the group and also how the group should be organized.
Helps the organizations in accomplishing important tasks
The internal nature of the group differs as per the leadership style adopted by the leader.
Groups can be divided into two: formal and informal groups. To achieve the organizational goals, the management forms formal groups and allocates tasks and responsibilities to different members. Informal groups are those which are formed by the employees themselves. Common interests, growth, support, recreation, etc form the basis for the formation of informal groups (Ulloa and Adams, 2004).
Teams/groups are formed to provide a structure which helps in increasing and improving the ability of the employees and encourage them to take part in planning, problem solving and decision making function of the organization, to help serve the customers better.
There are various factors that impact the group behavior within a team. The factors that affect the development of effective teamwork in organizations are:
Leadership: Leadership style plays a significant role in modifying the group behavior. If Mr. Wakefield wants that the employees follow the rules and regulations he sets then he will have to become a charismatic leader, as a charismatic leader is able to motivate and lead his team, and is able to generate faith in adverse times. The change that the employees will be going through after the merger will be tough and Mr. Wakefield will have to generate faith amongst the employees and make them believe that he is their leader (Salas, Bowers and Edend, 2001).
Diversity: One of the main characteristics of an effective team is that it has diversity among its members, i.e. the members belong to different-different backgrounds. Effective teams embrace and are consists of a diversity of cultures, talents and personalities. Diversity promotes creativity and innovation.
The nature and behavior of the College staff is very different in comparison to the nature and behavior of the managerial staff. Mr. Wakefield will have to have knowledge and understanding of the nature of the college staff and the managerial staff of the Abbey College. The behavior of the college staff will be different from the behavior of the managerial staff. The college staff will be much more knowledgeable and will have very high expectations for them. On the other hand, the managerial staff will not be having very high expectations of their careers in the college. The nature and behavior of these two groups will depend on the leadership style adopted by Mr. Wakefield, the atmosphere that he will create, and the diversity among the group. If he adopts autocratic leadership style, then the managerial staff may become dissatisfied, or if he adopts too liberal style, then the managerial staff may take the advantage of the liberty. But no matter what leadership style he may adopt, the college staff will focus on teaching the students only.
The functioning of organizations has improved a lot with the increasing use of technology in an organization. New technology helps in increasing the profit margins and makes the company to fight in a competitive environment. The companies which use new technology can function more effectively than the companies that do not. It helps the teams in carrying out the work a lot faster and with ease. Mr. Wakefield can use the technology like internet for marketing about the new college (Pencer, 2013). He can use internet to market the courses that will be offered in the new merged college. The new technology can be used for teaching as the teaching methodologies are also changing, use new technology based methods like videos, online study materials, etc.
From the above study, it can be said that both the structure and culture have a very lasting impact on the organization. The structure and culture should be formed in such a way that they both play a part in achieving the organizational objectives. Mr. Wakefield will also have to take special care of the individual’s work and behavior. Also the leadership style that he adopts will have a lasting impact on the employees’ motivation and the effectiveness of the teams. He can use the internet to market the college and the courses that it is offering (Hassall and Joyce 2001).
Journals & Books
- Armstrong, M, and Stephens, T., 2005. A Handbook of Management and Leadership: A Guide to Managing for Results. Kogan Page Publishers.
- Fauske, R, J, and Raybould, R., 2005. Organizational Learning theory in schools. Journal of Educational Administration. 43(1).pp. 22-40.
- Gibb, S., 2000. Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization; Developments in Theory and Practice. Employee Relations. 22(3). pp. 293-298.
- Hassall, T, and Joyce, J., 2001. Approaches to learning of management accounting students. Education + Training. 43(3). pp. 145-153.
- Lyons, P., 2006. Team member involvement in team leader training and performance. Team Performance Management. 12(3/4). pp. 102-114.