Introduction To Non Standard Employment
The fundamental changes to the way that people are employed are being changed due to global capital. The availability of secure jobs is decreasing while non-standard jobs like contract work, agency work and temporary work and part time are taking over. Due to the lack of secure jobs in market youngsters have no other option than going for non-standard employment (Zelenski, Steven and David, 2008). The major problem with precious work is little chance to join a union or to bargain collectively.
The term of non-standard employment refers to the different forms of employment with lack of job-stability, union membership, the power to fringe, stable employees and social security of full-time. It includes temporary work, self-employment, fixed-term contract, part-time work and subcontracting (Frone, Marcia and Lynne, 1993).
A significant increase in non-standard employment has seen in recent decades due to factors like globalization, spread of information technology and shift from manufacturing to service sector.
There are four dimensions by which it can be determined that either the employment is precious in nature of not:
- The first dimension is degree of confidence of continuing employment.
- Another dimension is degree of regulatory protection (Campbell and Burgess, 2001).
- The third dimension is income level of employees.
- And last is control over the labor process.
The non-standard employment is defined in literature as employment that is permanent and not full-time, which is unstable and low quality and which provide lower pay and which puts workers at risk of illness, injury and/or poverty (Presser, 2003).
A dramatic rise is seen in non-standard forms of employment in last few decades due to globalization and lack of standard jobs. These forms of non-standard employment provide a direct means of adjusting labor uses in line with the in employment demand to the employers.
Part time work provides flexibility to the employees as they are not pushed for about 40 hours a week at the job (Campbell and Burgess, 2001). On the other hand they also get partial unemployment benefits while working a part-time job as while doing part-time job an individual is on unemployment.
While providing all these befits there are several limitations of part time employment for employees. First of all the individual can not earn as he could for full time. But it is large depends on the skills an individual is having. If the skills are demanding than the individual will defiantly earn good in part-time job too.
The part time job has some advances for employers too. First of all the employers have to pay lower salary compared to full time employees. By providing part time jobs employer can attract skilled employees who are not able to give long time to job (Biletta and Eisner, 2007).
So basically non-standard employment like part time job provides a set of opportunities for employees and employers but at the same time they both have to face some disadvantages too. The employees get great opportunities to show their productivity and enable employer to hire them for full time (DeGraaf and Heyma, 2009).
In non-standard employment employer has to survive for employees with specific skills. Usually non-standard emplacement do not includes training and development but if employees are being hired for some skilled work than employer have to make significant investment on training and development of employees.
It is must for the employer to treat their part-timers and full-timers in a same way or it may also cause conflicts (Segal, 1996). Proper management of employees is very much important if organization is hiring the employees through non-standard employment forms.
During past two decades a common boost in the quantity of workers engaged in non-standard employment in developed countries is identified by the majority of the international literature on non-standard employment (Rodgers and Rodgers, 1989; ILO, 1997; Barker and Christensen, 1998; Mangan, 2000; OECD, 2002).
A verity of benefits is offered by contract employment to employers. It is must for the employers to study the guidelines of contract worker before hiring employees on the basis of this form. Claim for tax purpose can be made by the employer for a worker as an indention contract but if the worker does not meet the IRS definition of contract worker than the employer may to have face have penalties (Elcioglu, 2010).
Another form of non-standard employment is self-employment where the employee becomes employer. Rather than working in a nine to five shift most people like to start own work where that have the flexibility of work. It is believed by the most of the youngsters that having own work is much better than working for an employer.
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