Introduction to Management and leadership across culture

The aspect relating to the management and leadership plays very important role in an organization as it direct people to work in a coordinated manner which tends to enable them in terms of attaining their strategic goals and objectives in an effective way. The type of leadership and managerial style as adopted by people are largely depends on the culture followed within an enterprise (Baer, 2004). If the selected styles are applied in an effective way then it will result corporation in terms of increased profits and sales. This report tends to showcases the comprehend need of leadership and management in hospitality organization such as Ritz Carlton.

It is one of a most famous luxury hotel in United Kingdom that operates around 84 luxury hotels and resorts in major cities in 26 countries (Ritz Carlton, 2014). It has the team of 38000 employees that dedicatedly works for the benefits hotel in an effective way. The present report tends to depicts about the ways that can be used by the managers of Ritz Carlton with an aim to lead and motivate its workforce across different cultures. In addition to this, it also showcases different types of approaches that can be used by managers of hotel in order to manage the cultural diversity within an organization. Finally, various recommendations are suggested in order to response as per the different needs and expectations of culturally diverse guests along with the technique for managing and building teams in diverse workforce.

There is a presence of different leadership styles that are used across a diverse set of cultures. All management uses various kinds of leadership styles while handling employees belonging to different cultures. These include Laissez-faire, Autocratic, participative, transactional and transformational. Laissez-faire style is used by higher authority for supervision of lower level employee. But they fail to give them feedback about their efficiency. Ritz-Carlton uses this style for experienced and trained employee because they do not need that much supervision of work (Beck, 2003). However it can be evaluated that employee are not equal. Some require guidance and feedback to improve their effort and achieve their managerial goals.

Autocratic leadership style is used when boss itself takes company decisions without discussing it with employees. The team member suggestion is not given priority. Authority of taking decision is on management. Worker interaction and interference in not allowed. Ritz-Carlton avoids staff creativity (Different leadership styles, 2013). Innovative ideas will not be used. The problems are different all the time and if boss does not have experience of taking decision of that kind of situation than wrong solution can also be adopted and that can be harmful for Ritz-Carlton. For company growth invention of new ideas are required.

Democratic or participative working style is utilized when all team member of Ritz Carlton work together. Their innovative ideas are called as well as respected for betterment of organization. All employees working in the hotel have a freedom to give their ideas and participate in every action taken by leader for growth of company and team performance. Managers and team-participant set together the criteria, method, goals of Ritz-Carlton. All company matters are discussed with team members and solution are also developed jointly. The business strategy is formed collectively for increasing customers and defeating competitors. Participative leadership increases the morale of employees. The confidence of giving thoughts and freedom to speak is developed in workers. In case of Ritz-Carlton it has been found that when staff is satisfied with its work place the treatment of customers is also well. This is followed by organization members being loyal towards company.

Transactional style of leadership used when manager wants to provide penalty or rewards to his employees or team members (Berger and Huntington, 2012). Any kind of transaction is evolved in this style. Boss has a power to appreciate his sub-ordinates on accomplishment of goals. Managers of hotel under study can review their working progress. Individual who performed well can be rewarded in various forms like bonuses, rewarding or appreciating in front of others so that all get motivated and pleased so as to keep improving performance. Ritz-Carlton praises the good performer and penalty for mistake so that he does not repeat that fault and same error again. This works as a motivation style for staff members.

Compare and contrast different motivation techniques across different cultures

In organization culture various kinds of motivation methods are used for encouraging employees to improve their performance. Management uses different methods to encourage their employees for improving their performance (Motivation techniques, 2012). The staff can be motivated by creating positive work environment, setting goals, celebrating achievement, sharing profits, surveying staff satisfaction level, providing professional improvement to them, etc. The elaborated form of motivational techniques used by Ritz-Carlton is given below:

Proper environment - Ritz-Carlton create proper working environment for their employees which gives them positive attitude towards job. This is an important motivation technique which enhances knowledge and capability of working. Due to this method the disputes between workers decreases. Employee conflict is eliminated and so as to allow for free working growth of company. If the culture is optimistic then they are encourage to perform as a team and their work creativity increases by sharing ideas with each other which is shown in job performance.

Prior setting of targets - If the goals of each member are pre-decided than they feel motivated. Their professional goals and objectives are cleared. This motivates employee towards their target achievement and inspires them for work. Ritz-Carlton can assign employee their goals so they try to complete them without getting discouraged.  This help staff to reach milestones in life and profits of company increases (7 Techniques for Increasing Motivation, 2014).

Incentives - For increasing motivation level Ritz-Carlton can provide compensation.  It provides individual for improvement of personnel performance. Team incentive can also be given for group inspiration. Rewards can be given in both forms financial or nonfinancial. Monetary can be in money form like cash prize, increase in salary. Nonfinancial are rewarding, extra vacation day or holiday package plan, etc. Appreciation motivates the person to increase his ability and capacity of working within organization.

Rewarding the well performer - By giving achievements to employee they feel motivated. These can be in form of employee-of-the-month, star performer of company awards they can be appreciated. Ritz-Carlton can celebrate the success with staff by giving print certificate or organizing press conference for good performer. They can highlight those stars on their website. If whole team has performed well they can recognize each individual of the team (Bird and Fang, 2009).

Assessing employee satisfaction and working on flaws - Regular survey about the satisfaction level of each employee of Ritz-Carlton for company environment. The satisfaction level of staff can be known by organizing a formal get together for them. Here, they are free to share their views and problems regarding any situation. This will show employee that they matter a lot for organization and their views are listened. Their opinions matter for betterment for hotel. This will help in improving the working condition of company also.

Training methods - Employees can be motivated by organizing seminars, training section, and lectures for them. This will help them to better understand their company environment and working style. Ritz- Carlton can arrange some motivation seminar for their staff. This will help them in self-evaluation and doing their SWOT analysis. Proper training will guide them in performing their task without difficulty (Bird and Stevens, 2003).

Profit sharing – This technique of hotel with employee will help them in motivation. By increasing their salary they will help company in raising their earnings. It promotes the teamwork and collective goal setting. This will reduce the employee turnover and give them pride which will see in form or improved performance.

Recommend leadership strategies for an organization that operates across different cultures

Ritz Carlton operates its functions across 26 countries that possess people from different cultural background. For the hotel like them it is being considered as very important aspect that they must comply with some kind of strategies with an aim to coordinate the work of individuals that belongs to different cultural background (Diller, 2010). In this respect, there are several leadership strategies recommended that can be adopted by the managers of Ritz Carlton with an aim to manage the work of culturally diverse workforce in an effective way. These are all enumerated as below:

Getting feedbacks and ideas from every person without any kind of discrimination: Here leader of Ritz Carlton should have to direct their efforts in terms of considering each employees at equal pace without any kind of discrimination with regard to the their cultural belief, values and ideas etc. In addition to this, the decision taken by managers in respect to assigning responsibilities to different persons must not be relied on any kind of stereo belief (Elmuti, 2001). For example, there are is the stereotype for American people that they are more hardworking and generous towards their work. Such type of stereotype must not to be inculcated into the decision where suggestions are taken from different workers. If these are to be followed in an effective way then only managers of hotel are able to direct their efforts in terms of coordinating the work of culturally diversified employees in an effective way. This also enables them in a way to attain their strategic goals and objectives which is related to quality services in an appropriate manner. 

Effective communication: This is considered as an important aspect for the hotel like Ritz Carlton that operates its operations in many countries. This is because, by complying with the practice of effective communication a smooth flow of information can be maintained between the persons that that belong to the different cultural background (Fang, 2005). The communication can become effective if it is to be appropriately understood by some other persons. This occurs as the major barrier for Ritz Carlton that functions its operation in many countries because of the presence of difference in language. However, this particular problem can be solved by managers of Ritz Carlton by appointing language translator. With the help of this approach smooth flow of information can be maintained within an organization.

Equal benefits and recognitions: The efforts must be made by managers of Ritz Carlton in terms of providing equal benefits and recognitions to the persons that operates within an enterprise and belong to different cultural background. This type of activity as compiled by the managers of hotel will motivate employees to work better and collective manner (Fish, 2004). This is because if workers are to be assessed at equal pace at that time they will direct their efforts in terms of providing an effective service to an enterprise. With the help of it Ritz Carlton goal related to utmost customer satisfaction can also be met.

Style of leadership needs to be selected in a way that supports diversity: The working of the people that belong to diversified culture background largely depends on the type of leadership style as adopted by their leader. In order to manage the diversity of people within an organization, manager of Ritz Carlton can rely on participative aspects. It is the type of approach which invites suggestion from different peoples without directing any kind of discrimination (Hogan, 2012). This practice will help increasing the motivation of employees in an effective manner and also enable them in terms of working towards the goals and objectives of an enterprise in an appropriate way

Critically evaluate the theory relating to managing cultural diversity

There are several policies and guidelines involves that simplified the work of managing different human resource which is not considered as easy task. Diversity in workforce implies that each individual are unique in different aspect and it becomes the duty of employer in terms of recognizing these uniqueness in individuals in an appropriate way. In this respect, a critical evaluation is being done between various identified diversity related theories with an aim manage the multiplicity of employees at Ritz Carlton (Jelencic, 2011).

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The first approach is related to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. This theory showcases the framework for cross cultural communication and has been developed by Geert Hofstede. This theory tends to describe that cultural of society has its significant effect on the on the values of its members which shapes the behavior of an individual. This theory has its application in several fields such as a paradigm for research, particularly in cross-cultural psychology, international management, and cross-cultural communication etc (Kapoor, 2011). The context of this theory is based on five basic dimensions such as Power/Distance (PD), Individualism (IDV), Masculinity (MAS), and Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) along with Long term orientation which is recently added. This theory will be proved as the beneficial aspect for the hotel like Ritz Carlton. This is because with the help of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions theory managers of hotel can identify different approaches, decisions and can divide the work of employees as per these five identified dimensions.

For example, if on the basis of analysis it is found out that employee of hotel are found out at the first dimension that is related to Power/Distance which is low. The aspect relating to the low PD depicts about that power is shared and well dispersed (Lavaty and Kleiner,  2001). Here in this approach society member considered themselves into equal pace. In order to manage the diversity of such type of individual managers of Ritz Carlton can comply with teamwork approach. With the help of an effective teamwork efforts of employees can be directed towards the goals and objectives of an enterprise in a collective manner. This tends to result corporation in terms of increased profits and sales. In the similar way, if employees of hotel found out at fifth dimension of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions approach. Here if they were stands at low LTO aspect. The persons who belong to this aspect needed that their employer must show respect towards their tradition and culture in an effective way (Thomas, 2003). The persons must not show any kind of extravagance or act frivolously in front of them. By complying with such type of aspects managers of Ritz Carlton can direct their efforts in terms of assessing their workers needs in such a way so that cultural diversity of employees within an organization can be managed in an effective way. Overall it can be said that the concept relating to the Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions approach will be proved as the beneficial affair for an organization and can assist them in terms of managing their cultural related diversity in an effectual way.

However, it can be critically evaluated that Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions theory has divided the norms of society into five basic dimensions because every society is different from another and so there exit differences in norms in every society from each other that were found by Hofstede's (Triantafillidou and 2010).

Recommend responses to the different needs and expectations of culturally diverse guest

In present scenario, the success of organizations that are operating in hospitality industries are largely affected by the ways that they follows with an aim to fulfill the needs and demands of culturally diverse guest. Today business is not just limited to one particular nation but they have to serve their services as per the needs and demands of different individuals. In this respect, there are various recommendation are suggested to the managers of Ritz Carlton that tends to enable them in terms of responding according to the different needs and expectations of culturally diverse guests (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). These are all enumerated as below:

Managing the expectation through training and development programs: There are various expectation of customers identified from the managers of Ritz Carlton. It is basically related to the quality of services as provided by them. However, the particular expectation of culture diversified customers can be met by the managers of hotel by providing training to their employees. With the help of an effective training program needs and demands of the guest can be identified and according to which efforts can be met by workers in order to achieve the same in an effective way.

Recruitment of culturally diverse workforce: The hotel must contain employees from different cultural background. This is because with the help of such type of workforce needs and demands of those customers can be identified that belongs to different cultural background (Vignali, 2001). The need relating to such type of recruitment arises when guest belongs to different cultural background and does not know the language of the country where they are currently staying. In such type of circumstances it became difficult for the managers of Ritz Carlton in terms of analyzing the expectation of customers in an effective way. However, this particular problem can be solved by them by appointing such type of employees within an organization that understand the language of particular person in an effective way. In this regard, hotel can use two varied sources of recruitment such as internal and external. Internal recruitment can be done by them with the help of following techniques such as promotion, recruitment of ex employees and transfer etc. In addition to this, external source of recruitment involves campus recruitment and employment related organization etc (Vrana and Zafiropoulos, 2006).

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Forming changes within an organization: Ritz Carlton has to direct major changes in their food services. Here they will have to direct their efforts in terms of forming variation in their food menu that must involve list culturally diversified food. It is by complying with such type of practices only needs and expectations of the guests can be effectively met. As this efforts of hotel makes their customers feels like they are not away from their home. These all conditions help in enhancing the sales and profits of an enterprise.

Assessing the service gap: By determining the gap in the services of Hotel, quality with respect to delivering services to the customers can be improved by an organization. However, this can be performed by managers of Ritz Carlton by collecting feedback from their customers (Warner and Joynt, 2012). On the basis of this feedback specific needs and demands of the culturally diverse guests can be identified. It is with the help of this approach only service quality of hotel can be improved which tends to result corporation in terms of increased profits and sales.

Increasing employee motivation: Motivation is the process of generating enthusiasm among employees which enable them to works towards the goals and objectives of an enterprise. By motivating employees in an effective manner quality of the services as provided by them to their guest can be improved. This will also enable them to work in an appropriate manner. If these all things are to be done in an efficient way then Ritz Carlton goals relating to management of guest from culture diversity can be met.

Recommended techniques for managing and building teams with a culturally diverse workforce

Ritz Carlton is the global brand that operates its operation in more than 26 countries and territories of world, as the result of it hotel as to serve different types of guests that belong to varied cultural background. In this respect, there is the requirement of culturally diverse workforce in an organization in order to provide an effective service to their customers in an efficient way (Watson and Drummond, 2012). With this regard, there are various techniques for managing and building teams with a culturally diverse workforce identified that can be adopted by managers of Ritz Carlton. Managing those teams is also a difficult task for Ritz-Carlton so they use following techniques like proper communication of information, team building, time management, awareness of group member, attitude, knowledge, skills of staff etc. These are all enumerated as below:

Recognizing individual differences: Managers of Ritz Carlton can direct their efforts in terms of identifying the differences in their employees in an effective way. It is not necessary that the identified differences could only be related to the cultural norms and values but it could be related to the other aspect too such as personality, competence and attitude etc. On identification of such type of differences efforts can be made by managers of an organization in terms of coordinating the work of each employee in an efficient way. It is with the help of such type of approaches only teams within culturally diverse workforce can be managed.

Work in teams – Ritz-Carlton has employees which all belong to different culture. So by forming them in team it become easy to complete task and creating understanding between each others. Individual person can face many problems while working but when they work in a team they can easy be solved (Hogan, 2012). For cross-culture workers this is a best way of making coordination between them.

Awareness – All group members remain aware about the company organization and team target. Awareness during work makes them more focused. Ritz-Carlton team persons should be aware of nature of other culture diverse members of hotel. This will help in building proper coordination between them.

Communication – In all teams the essential message should be conveyed in properly and timely manner. In Ritz-Carlton if all group member will get the information timely than they can complete their assigned work on time. This will help team to perform their work on time and in better format. This will reduce the conflict between their members on account of culturally diverse workforce (Kapoor, 2011).

Adhering to a particular group structure – Employees who belong to similar cultural upbringing should be grouped in one team so that there would be less conflict between members. Disagreement can divert the team members from their goal and the hotel has to suffer. If there is misunderstanding between two members then whole team is distracted. Ritz-Carlton can hire same level worker in same team to avoid arguments.

Skills – The company member are qualified according to their position. If the team members are not having knowledge according to their position then they will commit mistake which will decrease their customers. The eligible person is assigned on every post. In a team all skilled persons are involved so that they can create innovative idea and can work on it in proper manner.

Time management – Culture is totally different term from time but it is very important for managing individual personal and professional life (Fish, 2004). For example, in lack of time person cannot concentrate on his work and social behavior. Personnel cannot complete his deadlines on scheduled time. Ritz-Carlton does proper time management for their employees so that they can give attention to all priorities of life.


Attributing all the facts from report it can be concluded that, the aspect relating to the management and leadership across culture plays very important role within an organization such as Ritz Carlton that has its operation in many countries. By complying changes in their management and leadership approach as per the diversity of workers, an effort of employees can be directed towards the goals and objectives of an enterprise. It leads to hotel in terms of increased profits and sales. In addition to this, by using several managing cultural diversity related theories objective of an enterprise relating to the quality services can be achieved in an effective way. On the other hand, with the help of several responses strategies relating to the understanding the different needs and expectations of culturally diverse guest, quality of the services can be improved by managers of Ritz Carlton. Overall, it can be said that with the help of leadership and management approach diversity of an individual within an enterprise can be managed in an appropriate way.


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