Introduction To Literature Review
This literature review is focusing on the perception of teachers and it can provide clear guidance to them in order to teach gifted and talented people. They have to focus on different teaching styles in order to make learning process more effective.
Perception of teachers towards gifted and talented students
It is very common that every university has different type of students who possess different abilities and potentials. The learning quality or time period in which any student grasps the matter is also totally different. The unique and different pattern of learning facilitate the teachers to adopt different types of learning styles which enable them to cope up with gifted and talented people in well organized manner (D'Agustino, 2012).
Kolb: It is very much essential for individual to gain different sort of learning and knowledge in order to boost their competency and also to attain more of fruitful rewards and benefits.
In this regard, there is a learning style that involves four different stages that are being utilized by teachers of different nature and fields are described below:
- Concrete Experiences: This is a stage in which gifted and talented students possess experience of certain situation or might be possible that they encounter same sort of experience many time in the light of doing something different with that of other students due to their anxiety and curiosity (McDonnell and Shiri, 2011).
- Reflective Observation: This is the point in which individuals watch certain activities and gains experiences of it. Individuals in this regard, evaluate their experiences by gaining feedback and review form different concerned officials in order to attain more insight of issues.
- Abstract Conceptualization: At this stage, thinking is incorporated by individuals regarding the concrete experiences and reflective observation. This practice develops ideas and thoughts among gifted and talented students from which they able to construct a way which is very much different to abstract concept (Hattie, 2013).
- Active Experimentation: Casey state that by feeling, watching and thinking about concerned activity, students essentially applies it in the real world in order to gain real experiences of thinking.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: This is a model which describes the objective of learning which teachers utilize in order to offer sound learning to their students. This model is certainly bifurcated into three basic domains namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
Montgomery stated that there are basically 6 set of competences in this regard that are demonstrated below:
- Knowledge: This is the practice in which recalling of facts, concepts and answers are taken into account by teachers in order to offer learning to different set of students of gifted and talented nature.
- Comprehension: Under this, teacher incorporated practice of learning such as understanding of amending by restating in their own word so that better interpretation can be gained by students (Montgomery, 2006).
- Application: Montgomery stated that by using or applying certain set of knowledge and putting it into real world by students, better and more practical form of learning can be gained.
- Analysis: Teacher many a times interpret with the help of different elements and also entail more of conceptualization o that better understanding to students can be offered.
- Synthesis: Under this, teacher posses a perception that by developing new and unique models or structures for extra ordinary students , better learning can be obtained and it essentially help in attaining more of creativity by students in their field (Mueller and Sanman 1999).
- Evaluation: At this stage, judgment is developed by pupils regarding ideas and thoughts. This helps in reviewing and justifying the ideas and essentially aids high amount of learning among students (Silverman, 2002).
Students adopt various types of learning strategies which help them in understanding the problem in accurate manner and they can solve the issues in just one click. They choose their strategies as per their convenience which must be able to provide any information. According Joan Freemen (2013) if students are not able to choose appropriate learning strategies then they won’t be in position to grasp the things in well manner and there development will also diminish.
Teaching styles (spectrum theory)
Teachers have different type of teaching style which they adopt in their teaching methodology. It is essential for teachers to have different types of teaching abilities in order to provide appropriate learning to the students. Spectrum theory has contributed immensely in the same aspect. According to this theory the teachers must not follow the same pattern to teach their every student.
In order to gain better insight of the learning strategies that is being offered to gifted and talented students, identification of their strength and weakness in very much required. Further opportunity and threats essentially aids in gaining more desirable learning.
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Books and Journals
- Bailey, R. and Macfadyen, T., 2002. Teaching Physical Education 11-18: Perspectives and Challenges. Continuum.
- Burkill, B. and Eaton, R., 2010. Developing Teaching and Learning: The Textbook for the Cambridge International Certificate for Teachers and Trainers. Cambridge University Press.
- Casey, R. and Koshy, V., 2000. Special Abilities Scales: Observational Assessment for Identifying Able and High-potential Pupils : Teacher's Handbook. Hodder & Stoughton.
- Coulson-Thomas, C., 2000. Developing a corporate learning strategy. Industrial and Commercial Training. 32(3). pp.84 –88.
- D'Agustino, S., 2012. Toward a course conversion model for distance learning: a review of best practices. Journal of International Education in Business. 5(2). pp.145–162.
- Dunn, R. and Griggs, S., 2000. Practical Approaches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education. Greenwood Publishing Group.