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Various Models of Human Resource Development


Training can be determined as a learning set of skills or behaviour and actions that are predictable. The main aim of training is improvement of performance of individual in the current job which is done by bringing changes in the behaviors and skills (Bratton and Gold, 2012). Development is the process that seeks to increase the potential of employees so that they are prepared to face future challenges. The present report focuses on the learning and development styles adopted and their advantages and drawbacks faced by McDonalds which is a leading retailer in food services across the globe. It also throws a light on the role of UK government in lifelong learning, training and development for under 25's sector and contribution of training initiatives taken by the government to human resource development.  


1.1 Learning style for Human Resource Development 

VARK Model – This model explain the four learning style that MC Donald can adopt for his employees. These model include the visual, Auditory, write and read, kinetics style (Alfes, Shantz, Truss and Soane, 2013).

Visual – MC Donald used the picture, images, graphs, mind maps to understand the new information for enhancing the visualize knowledge of the workers. 

Auditory – it is the learning style the learner understand the situation through the speaking and listening process. They attend the conferences and lectures and making the story related to the condition and experience and also include in group discussion.

Read and write - In this process the learner prepare the notes and statement according to the situation and describe the ideas with full understanding the concept. They used the graph and chart of making the statement (Kehoe and Wright, 2013).

Kinesthetic – MC Donald used the data and tactile decision related to the problem and e making story with the past experience and apply the pictures and project.

1.2 Role of learning curve and important of transfer of learning

Learning curve represent the cost analysis, and efficiency of production, it is also known as the productivity curve of the company. 

(1)Role of learning Curve – This curve help to MC Donald to identifying the need, demand and preferences of the consumers. The price and future estimation of budget and requirement of human resources in the company .It set up the bonus and incentive policy and plan for the employees. It analysis the present, past data and help in take right decision for the future.

(2)Importance of transfer of learning- Its essential where we apply the new techniques in the business for generating the profit. MC Donald Increase the productivity of the firm and efficiency of the employees for the motivating the people. It help to maintain the mentally discipline and interest of the person for generating the new creative and innovative idea for maintaining the relation between consumer and employees in the business (Dries, 2013).

1.3 Learning theory and learning style apply in event

MC Donald organized a conference the contribution of learning theory and learning style these are follow - 

They used the behavioural theory for the leaning of the employees. It focus on the goal objectives and behaviour of the person and dependency on the quantity and quality (Martin, McNally and Kay, 2013). It relate the four factors like-knowledge, view of learning, motivation, implication of teaching in the conferences. MC Donald used the learning through the statement and prepare the training module for the workers. MC Donald used the motivation for enhancing the efficiency of employees.

Kolb learning style used by the MC Donald in the organizing conference according to this they consist the four elements it is all over depend on the experience according to this they prefer the doing the work and get the knowledge and also analysis and reviewed this technique, implement the training and give the suggestion to the solution of the problem (Heckman and Mosso, 2014).

Leadership style and theory

According to above discussion preparing the training module for the fulfilling the goal and objective of the business they select the visual and kinaesthetic style.

MC Donald used the visual for the training because this is the way the learner learn through the writing, reading and observing the thing. They used the more videos, graph, charts and creating the innovative story so that they understand the position in the mind (Kor and Mesko, 2013).

In other style they can apply to interaction between the customer and identifying the need and demand of the consumers for taking the decision .They also transfer the information according to the  used different channel and used the system for using transfer the condition from the text to the another medium. MC Donald used the training according to the identifying the interest and values of the employees and current development of the business for using the new techniques (Slavić, Berber and Leković, 2014).

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2.1 Training need for restaurant manager- 

There are the some different training need for the position of the MC Donald -


Training need

Restaurant manager

The training of the manager is train the leader and leading the people the new employees have train to the technical aspect of the computer software of the restaurant. The policy are feasible to the employees and trained to daily route-en work like- operating the register, busing table. knowledge about the kitchen and barrow to handle the complaint issues related to the consumers (Aswathappa, 2013).

Shift Manager

Knowledge about the responsible for the hiring, training and discipline the staff member, identifying the customer attitude, assertive in decision making, command on the knowledge related to the field. Maintain the coordination between the client and inventory record of the supply chain, confidence and motivate the team members (Rondinelli, 2013).

Customer Service Assistance

Following are the need for trained to the employees -Attentiveness, communication skill, patience level, body languages, time management, influence to other, decision making skills.

2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of the training method




     On the job

This is the method the trainees place the job and learn for specific skill and knowledge .

It is the less expensive and time saving method.

The trainers also motivated through the learning.

They have not required the more management support and planned for the training programmed (Locke and Latham, 2013).



They are not satisfied the particular skill for the competing the future need .it affect the trainer for recruit for the external because the change of technology take place (Burke and Noumair, 2015).

     Off the job

The trained person are increase the productivity in the organization. The large people are trained that particular time period. The large information take place with the reducing the span of time period (Renwick, Redman and Maguire, 2013).

The training take place the outside the work place .it is not effective because they do not take the practical aspect of training. This training method not give the any feedback after training (Adeniji, Osibanjo and Abiodun,  2013).

2.3 Training and development plan

  1. Objective – Plan the programmed according to the ground floor employees in the organization. To enhance the efficiency of the employees for result inf the increasing the productivity.

  2. Purpose –To interact with the customer and identified the preference ,demand of the consumers.

  3. Method of training- They used the on the training job method .It save the time and more effective because this method are implement on the  place .

  4. Implementation – The trainer have full information regarding the task and process of then implied in the way of practically.

  5. Monitoring- The trainer analysis the result before and after training.

  6. Evaluation-  it may be result according the feedback given by the trainer and performance of the employees. 

Task- 3

3.1 Evaluation for training of identified staff

The main aim of evaluating training is to compare the results of post – training with the objectives desired by trainees, trainers and managers. Evaluation is essential because training is a costly and time consuming process (Jabbour and et. al., 2013). Without measurement, nothing can improve and this principle is applicable in the assessment of training. The different techniques that can be used for evaluation for training of identified staff in McDonalds are described as follows : 

Cost benefit analysis : In this method, costs associated with the training are examined and compared with the benefits that accrue due to such training.  The best way to measure the output is evaluating the value of output after and before the training (Zimmerman, Gavrilova-Aguilar and Cullum, 2013).

Benchmarking training : Another method of training evaluation is benchmarking wherein results of training of the cited organisation are compared with some other organisation. In this method, HR professionals of an organisation gather data on training and compare it with the similar data of other company of same size in the industry (Kern, 2014).

Formative evaluation : This may be carried out when a training program is occurring or forming such as structured walk through, pilot test, continuous collection of feedbacks from the participants (Glover, Van Aken and Doolen, 2011).

Summative evaluation : It takes place after the completion of training. It includes evaluation of information and attitude learned after the conduct of training program.

3.2 Review of success of evaluation methods

It is important to carry out evaluations so that the results achieved from training can be compared with the post training results and it can be analysed how the firm is benefited from the training program (Broadbent and Poon, 2015). This helps in providing an understanding to the management of McDonalds that whether the cost incurred for the training and development of employees is fruitful and providing expected results to the HR managers. The cited organisation uses different methods for measuring the results of training such as cost benefit analysis, benchmarking training, formative evaluation and summative evaluation (Nesselroade and Cattell, 2013). These methods are quite beneficial for evaluating training of the identified staff. 

Cost benefit analysis provides the costs incurred for conducting the training programmes and what return is achieved on the amount invested for the program. It assists the HR managers of McDonalds to assess the costs and benefits accruing to a particular training activity.

 Benchmarking training is very beneficial for the management of McDonalds as it helps it in formulation of better strategies than its competitors.

Formative evaluation have helped the cited organisation to a great extent so that the effectiveness of training program can be reviewed when it occurs so that any problems or issues can be solved at that time only and measures can be taken for improvement (Dipboye and Colella, 2013).

Although summative evaluation is a good method but it is not as effective as other ones because in this method, assessment is done at the end which delays decision making at the cited firm (Ployhart, and Moliterno, 2011).

3.3 Evaluation models

There are various models that can be used by an organisation for evaluation of its training program such as Kirkpatrick model, the CIRO model and the ROI model. McDonalds has adopted following two methods of evaluation :

Kirkpatrick model : This model was developed by Donald L. Kirkpatrick who identified four levels at which training can be evaluated namely reaction, learning, behaviour and results (Meredith, 2011). In the first level, reaction of trainees is evaluated by administering them questionnaires or through conduct of interviews in the cited organisation. In the learning levels, it is measured how efficiently trainees have learned ideas, facts, concepts, attitudes and theories. At the behavioural level, training evaluation includes : a) effect on training on job performance is measured through interviews and b) performance at job is observed. The last level is measuring results where effect of training in achievment of organisational goals is evaluated.

CIRO model : It was developed by Warr, Bird and Rackham and it includes four components :

  1. 1. Context : identification of needs of training and objectives.

  2. 2. Input : training program is designed and delivered.

  3. 3. Reaction : analysing the quality in order to make improvement in training experience

  4. 4. Outcomes : these are evaluated on the terms on what was the actual result of the training.

Selection of evaluation techniques

 The three most appropriate formal and informal techniques that can be used by McDonalds are : 

1.Cost benefit analysis : It would help the cited organisation in further decision making regarding costs incurred for the training program and benefits that would accrue.

2.Benchmarking training : It is beneficial as the company can compare its data on training with other competing organisations in the same industry and form strategies accordingly.

3.Formative evaluation : This technique is helpful as it aids the company to review the effectiveness of training programmes and take corrective measures (Guest, 2011).

All the above techniques of evaluation can be used by McDonalds so that its training programs can be improved at the global level.

Critical evaluation of models of evaluation

McDonalds has adopted two models for evaluating its training process :

Kirkpatrick model : It is a very useful model as it measures the effect of training at four different levels – reaction, learning, behaviour and results. The main advantage is that it helps in providing insight about the process and it is a quick and cheap method (Kagitcibasi, 2013). But the major limitation is that usually reactions are abrupt and quick so it is not feasible to make chnages on the basis of trainee's reaction.

CIRO model : It is almost similar to Kirkpatrick model and has four major components – context, input, reaction and outcome. But the main drawback of this model is that it is does not take into account behaviour and so, it is more useful for management focused training programmes rather than people who are working at lower levels (Weekley and Ployhart, 2013).


From the above report we can conclude that the human resource development plays an important role in today's world. It is a very vast subject which includes many concepts. The government of UK is providing various training to their citizens for their betterment. Further, it can be stated that employees are the face of the organization as they present the product and services that are delivers by the organization. It is important to provide them with proper training so that they will be able to improve their skills and capabilities. Moreover, all the issues that they are facing should be considered and proper services should be provided so that they will be able to put on their full efforts. 

Related Sample : Human Resource Mangement 


  • Adeniji, A.A., Osibanjo, A.O. and Abiodun, A.J., 2013. Organisational Change and Human Resource Management Interventions: an Investigation of the Nigerian Banking Industry. Serbian Journal of Management.
  • Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C. and Soane, E.C., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management.
  • Aswathappa, K., 2013. Human resource management: Text and cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012.Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Broadbent, J. and Poon, W.L., 2015. Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. The Internet and Higher Education.
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