Organisational behaviour is an amalgamation of two terms i.e. organisation and behaviour. It is defined to be a field of study which examines behaviour of individual within institution and identify measures through which it could be influenced positively (Suppiah and Singh Sandhu, 2011). An organisation consists of people belonging to different culture and ethnicities work together for a shared purpose which makes it essential for management to take up measures through which productivity and profitability could be maintained.
Individual Behaviour defines manner in which a person reacts to varied circumstances in his lifetime. The individual behaviour is backed by numerous factors such as personality, values, beliefs and perception which tend to influence his reaction to various circumstance (Dohmen and et. al., 2011). It has been extremely organisation to undertake initiatives which tend to influence behaviour of an individual in more productive manner. There can be numerous theories which are undertaken to understand behaviour of a person such as Mars model, MBTI and personality traits approach. Stereotyping is an approach in which in which a general set of characteristics defines the group to which a person belongs. The major areas which are undertaken in this simplification are sex, race, age, physical appearance and most importantly religion. There is lesser role of experience in stereotyping and mostly relies upon social perception relating to that group.
Theories and Models
The reason for which stereotyping are perceived better than having no knowledge is that they provide familiarity with a person to a marginal extent which is definitely better than not knowing a person at all. The prime theory which has been emphasized is Mars model. This model defines measures through which behaviour of an individual could be influenced within an organisation. This model emphasizes on personality of individual and its channelising so that better organisational goals are fulfilled. Business consist of numerous people working together possessing distinct behaviour which can be categorised on the performance grounds, citizenship, counterproductive and attendance. The categorisation of the employees on the basis of their types of personality through Big 5 personality model.
This is most influential approach which tends to generate performance-based outcomes at the same time making sure behaviour of employees are maintained. The application of this model in the business environment tend to be beneficial as it improves the performance of individuals along with promoting a positive behaviour which is reflected through labour turnover in an organisation.
The major roles which has been played in this domain are the motivation tactics combined with promoting positive behaviour and perceptions which tend to influence positively upon organisational performance. It is very important to conduct an examination upon internal circumstances of business so that right theory could be applied. The most suitable approach is Mars model which undertake division of workforce of an organisation on grounds of personality, values, perceptions, attitude and stress approaches. Categorisation of such factors helps in division of people on grounds of Motivation, Ability, role perceptions and situational factors which helps in deriving positive results and behaviour out of individuals.
Perception and stereotyping
Perception is referred to as a mechanism which revolves around transforming sensory stimuli into meaningful information. The process of interpretation of information which has been obtained through sound, speech, touch and taste is known to be perception. The manner in which in the categorisation of stereotypes and explanation of self-behaviour is defined in this approach. The perception of an individual carries a direct impact upon its interpretation, organisation and stereotyping. It is a normal tendency of a human to evaluate a non-consciously categorise individuals on the basis of their similarity, proximity and common fate. The thinking of an individual automatically categorises people on the basis of their social groups which can be further be categorised on the in-groups and out-groups. It has been known that stereotyping arises due to the formation of complex combination among factors such as cognitive, emotional and inter-group factors. The perception helps in the categorisation of complex behaviour and personalities on simplified grounds so that a general figure could be formulated.