Critical Analysis of Published Research Paper on Tourism
INTRODUCTION on Research Paper on Tourism
Popular and traditional culture is progressively more seen as a productive raw material for the events development. In order to develop demands of tourism, existing celebrations are repacked and extended as well as new traditions are shaped. Even wherever the cultural events have not particularly targeted to tourists, the speedy growth of the worldwide flow of tourists makes sure that they will attend them. Many critics have articulated concern at such expansions, as they see tourists as spoiling the prevailing traditional ethnicity. Visitors perhaps enhance commercialism, depriving and lessening the meaning of events. Tourism in country increases the employment as in food industry, hotel industry, airlines, tour operators etc. Moreover, with the increase in demand the tourists buy the products probably from higher households .
Thus, the increase in the output, prices and wages leads in the market. With this big change the poor households of the company gets negatively affected because of the price channels and reduction in the real income. Furthermore, for increasing the income of poor households the tourism industry has to focus on the skill development so the production will be of high quality. In many countries, such as Brazil, Kenya, and Uganda etc. many changes are done to grow the economic condition of poor households in the country.
The main question addressed in below piece of writing is the level to which the commercialism processed influence visitors and residents regarding the cultural basis and authenticity of traditional events. The particular topic is explained here by presenting experiential data from major event in Barcelona, Spain. For this study, data would be gathered through primary methods for analyzing views of people in relation to given subject .
Key Points Discussed
This report is prepared with an aim to determine the impact of tourists on local or traditional events. For exploring adequate knowledge on the topic, the research has been conducted on the Festes de la Mercè event, which is organized every year at the Barcelona, the capital of Spain. The resident of Spain celebrates this function to honor their lady of Mercy. This event was in early days used as a way of increasing tourism and also known as Fiesta of National Tourist Interest by the Spanish government in 1965. The goal of research was finding the positive and the negative aspects of tourism on the economic condition of the nation as the highly seasonal nature of employment, low average wage level etc (Ravenscroft and Matteucci, 2003).
Moreover, focus was the changing price structure, quality and quantity of goods services, its social and environmental impacts etc. because of tourism. Furthermore, the concerns was in economic consequences of tourism industry in that the discussion was centered on the balance of payment, currency flow, income generation and distribution of tourism spending, employment etc. The future trends were also discussed like development of adventure travel, cultural tourism, ecotourism etc. to attract lots of people towards the country (Gramatikov, 2010).
Research Methods Used
In order to gather data for the following research paper there are three types of primary methods that has been used. These are depth interview, surveys and participant observation. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized, for the reason to build a comprehensive image of the relationship among local residents, La Merce and tourists. The questionnaire was designed to identify the various key aspects regarding the cultural consumption and cultural context of La Merce event. Both tourists and local people were asked to evaluate how far they feel that event to be authentic. Moreover, they were asked to provide their views on if they thought that events cultural content is more closely connected to national, global or local culture. The authenticity concept was left up to the respondents to construe (Pablo, 2000).
With the combination of these three data collection methods, a true comprehensive image can be created of experiences and attitudes of various parties engaged in consuming and producing the event. However, there is some limitation faced while conducting the study, such as problems related to translation of language for getting feedbacks from different countries visitors along with biasness of the investigator. Furthermore, the deficiency of depth interview with applicants also means that in the qualitative way they had expressed their views was hard to judge and thus for this reason the surveys as well as observation was done in more quantitative way to interpret data’s practically (Stejskal, 2008).
Appropriateness of Methods
As mentioned above the researcher has used three methods for extracting views of visitors and local people. These methods have adequately provided the necessary results for analysis of final outcomes. Firstly, while conducting depth interview the exact views of policy makers as well as those people who engaged in the cultural production process were collected. It has proven successful in assessing results, as face to face interaction eliminates biasness of the observer and provides information’s in more accurate way. However, due to the requirements of understanding situation in more practical and realistic form, surveys were conducted.
The questionnaire were sent to both residents and tourists and were asked to rate the authenticity of event. In addition to this, to know the actual situations prevails at the time of event, the observer has visited events of September 2002 and 2003 to make field notes regarding crowd reactions or behavior, specific attention given by residents to tourists and activities taken place in the event. The data was analyzed by comparing results of these two events and interpretation made in relation of positive or negative influences of tourists.
It is not possible for any researcher to gather feedbacks of whole population. Due to the limitation of time and money, the small sample of population should be select that represent the whole universe. Thus, in the following research also the investigator has chosen sample for data collection. For instance, in the qualitative method, 15 depth interviews was undertaken with representatives of former and current mangers of events, Municipality, experts in the field of cultural and Catalan culture events as well as members of association. These were selected, as they are the organizers, who can provide data’s on changes made in the event in recent years along with the level of impact it has created on the society .
Next in the survey method, questionnaire was sent to 500 tourists who have visited the event in September 2003. They were asked to provide their views on authenticity of the event as well as factors which drive them to come and attend the event. These respondents were from different backgrounds, so the questionnaire was made available to them in four languages, such as Spanish, French, English and Catalan. This is due to make them understand the language easily for extracting adequate answers. Lastly, in the observation method no sample has been chosen, as observer directly attained the event and investigated the situation.
Robinson explained that tourism promotes cultural change and commercialization, which is considered to deprive the culture of its original community role (Robinson, 1999). Moreover, Cohen have another opinion he utters that cultural changes must not imply as a loss of authenticity, it should be taken as emergent of authenticity, which have new consequences for tourists as well as local people (Cohen, 1998).
In Barcelona the fest ‘The Fetes de la Merce’ is celebrating since, 1968 in the honor of the Lady of Mercy. After that so many changes has been taken place and now the fest is not specific for the Catalan original performance but new changes like dances, Spanish culture has replaced it(Richards, 2001). Schuster argues that in cities there are two camps: the arts and urban development and livable cities advances (Schuster, 2001). Waterman says that arts festivals are done to compete with others and for making the image of the sponsors (Waterman, 1998).
All the organization like business and public are happy with the changes as it gradually affect the economic at national, state, and local levels. The positivity of tourism is it brings new money in the country and local products were sold so it helps local people to retain their ownership of businesses (Stynes, 1997). Furthermore, tourism affects on change in the prices, quality and quantity, services etc. So, increase can be majored in the sales of government and private sector. Indirectly they concern chain of products in hotel and the income earning of the households.
Tourist’s appearances in the culture events play an important part in the world. In Barcelona also the big cultural fests are organized to attract the visitors and to make familiar them with countries culture. Local People of Barcelona takes actively participation in the fest for the local pride and culture honesty with this the development of social and culture integration is also involved. The changes in events affect the authenticity and main region of celebrating it but local people and tourist enjoys the grand fest (Simm, n.d).
Tourism also works as supporting the economic sector of the country. It involves a large number of service and retailing business which covers sectors like hotels, drinking and eating establishments, recreation facilities like parks and ski resorts. The largest expenses are done on salaries and wages on people. It puts direct, indirect positive and negative economic impacts so all can be concluded by short term and long term strategic planning. Finally research proves that tourism is good for employment and people are happy with this new change because they are earning the more with the enjoyment.
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- MacCannell, D., 1976. The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. New York: Schocken Books.