To complete the project the task which are to be undertaken by Thomas Cook includes the following:
- History and structure of the travel and tourism industry
- Impact of national and international agencies
- Analysis of the factors affecting the demand and supply of the services
- Analysis of the impact of environmental factors and how it can be minimised
Tourism is simple refers to the such activities which includes the travelling of individuals outside of their usual environments. This sector includes destinations which are visited by the individuals for their pleasure or business. These destinations are further classified as man made and natural which have huge contribution in the development of travel and tourism sector. It is one of the fast growing sector which has significant contribution in the development of economy and society (Ab Karim and Chi, 2010). There are large number of organisations are working in this sector to which provides different offerings as per the demand of customers. The contribution of this sector is understood from that it creates large number of employment opportunities and high flow of cash in an economy which is further used in the development of infrastructure and tourist destinations for the pleasure of visitors.
In the present report explain about, development of travel and tourism sector in different timelines and range and diversity in the travel and tourism sector. Also, evaluation of the functions of government, governmental sponsored bodies and international agencies in the travel and tourism sector, impact of the local and national economic policies having the significant influence over the success of travel and tourism sector and impact of the political changes which are happen in different countries upon travel and tourism sector.
1a. History and development of travel and tourism sector
This sector is emerged and grows with high rate in current period of time due to the demand of individuals of society regarding travelling for the spending of their leisure time and for accomplishment of the business purposes. Mainly the activities which are included under the travel and tourism sector is about development of different destination fro attraction of the large number of visitors (Barros and et. al., 2011). This will includes the attraction of visitors whether from their own and outside countries. The scope of travel and tourism industry is vast in nature which includes diversified business activities. All the businesses which are operating their functions under this sector having the common goal and target is to provide products and services as per the needs of different travellers. It is one of the largest civilian industry in the world. From the analysis of the statistics of travel and tourism sector it is identified that one out of the 10 person is the part of travel and tourism industry in the world. The whole travel and tourism industry is divided into three major categories like lodging operations, transportation services, Food and Beverage operations etc. Lodging operations is different from the travel and tourism sector which provides the accommodation services to the guests whom are travel to the new countries to explore the different destinations. It is observed that this sector is developed with high growth rate in UK. There are large number of big and small companies are emerged and provide their services in this sector for the purpose of satisfaction of the different requirements of customers and earning large number of profits (Beritelli, Bieger and Laesser, 2014). Another sector activities which comes under this travel and tourism industry includes transportation services. The different activities which are included in transportation services includes Air planes, Metro's, bus etc. It is observed that significant role is played by the transportation and lodging industry in the development of the travel and tourism sector from many past years. The development of the travel and tourism sector is understood with the help of the analysis of the time period. It depicts that how different business which comes under travel and tourism industry is developed over the years. The development of the travel and tourisms sector is understood from the points which are defined below:
In ancient times till the end of the 16 century large number of population are living in agricultural communities where they have less number of resources to earn their livelihood. They have to spend more time into the fields to earn some amount of money which shows they don't have the time and wealth to spend on their leisure activities. From the beginning of the 18th century industry revolution takes place in the world where new factoring are developed and employment opportunities are provided. But in that time also the travelling is only for the richer section of the society they have the power to enjoy leisure and holidays. In this era, the activities related to travelling is just started after capturing the areas of villages by the kings and queens under their control. As there are no facilities are available at that point of time on name of tourism. It is observed that trade routes are developed for increasing commercial activities and the development of the new territories (Cellini, 2011). The individuals have show their interest in travel activities for both purposes commerce and pleasure. Before 1800, there are no facility available regarding transportation, communication, accommodation etc. At that time there is no tour and travel organisation is established which takes interest in the providence of different facilities which promotes travelling activities. One of the aspect which seen behind the travelling of individual is business reasons. The step of the development in luxurious travel is taken by the wealthy English. The main aim behind such promotion of travel activities is to make it trend and creates the status symbol which is spread out through out the Europe. They have the aim is to explore the civilized world and do effective study of arts and sciences.
From 1800 to 1935
It is the time where observed that the travel and tourism sector is start developing and some of the organisations are established like Thomas Cook to provide the different facilities for the pleasure of individuals. It is observed that economy of UK is growing which has the positive impact upon the travel and tourism sector and contributes their efforts regarding influencing the behaviour individuals. The different systems and aspects which are underdeveloped before 1800 was now going to improved slowly (Coghlan, 2012). The new systems and modes of travel are developed which includes roads, railroads, steamships etc. In 841, the first tour package is provided by Thomas Cook. This tour package was developed for the 570 individuals for the purpose of attending a temperance rally in Leicester, England. In this trip they provide picnic lunch and brass band to complete it effectively. This trip of Thomas Cook is successful and more demand is arise regarding their assistance in travel arrangements. This will motivates them and converting their such services into the full fleshed bushiness. Invention of the auto-mobile and air-plane expand the freedom of travel from one country to another in less period of time which creates the interest of individuals to go more often for exploring new areas which provides the opportunity to the organisation like Thomas Cook is to expand their business and earn more profits. The first passenger railway was started in 1930 between Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. The first objective of this train is to carry freight and after that faster transfer of travellers from one place to another at cheap prices (Connell, Page and Meyer, 2015).
Post second World War
The second world was happened in between 1939 to 1945. The main growth in the tourism sector is observed after 1945 where large number of changes are come in this sector which make the tourism industry more profound. From the mid of the 1950, observed that in UK large number of new tour operators are emerged which bring change in the basic facilities of industry and converted them into integrated functions which satisfies the different demand of customers. For ex., Hotels they are not only provide accommodation for stay of the visitors but also give many diversified activities as per the emerging demands of the customers. The different
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