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Organisation And Behaviour

Introduction

organisational behaviour means the way to interact in the organisation within the group with all individuals to work efficiently and achieve the desire goals of the organisation. It signifies the individual and group performances within the organisation influenced by the culture, attitude, emotions, values and ethics which ensure the efficient objectives of the organisation and smooth functioning of the activities within the organisation. This study describes the working scenario of the GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare company which is the well known pharmaceutical company in London, requires the efficient business organisation to sustain its viability in long run in cut throat competition market(Agarwal and 2012). This study explains the human behaviour and its impact on the job structure, performance, communication, motivation , leadership, etc which decides the final outcome of the organisation objectives. This report also specifies the organisation structure of the GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company. Different Leadership styles and management styles are evaluated to assess its impact on the functional activities of the organisation. The various management theories and their approaches are also evaluated in this report to study their positive and negative impact on the functional activities of the organisation.

Task 1

1.1 compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture

Organisation structure defines the responsibilities of the every individual directed towards the achievement of the organisation objectives and goals. Every organisation has its own organisational structure based on its objectives and goals. The basic objective of every organisation is to achieve its goals with best utilization of available resources keeping in mind the dynamic and competitive environment where they operates. GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company, sixth largest pharmaceutical company in world have adopted the horizontal structure to manage its organisation(Alfes and 2013). This structure do not allow the lower and middle level organisational employees to participate in the decision making and every decision is taken and forwarded by the top level management. This organisation structure have one manger and many subordinates under them which increases the responsibilities of the one manager who need to order and look after the work of every subordinate under him i.e. every subordinate is fully dependent upon the manager's direction, help and support.

Now, being creative GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company decided to change its organisational structure from horizontal structure to vertical structure. Senior authorities in vertical form are responsible to frame the strategies and delegate the responsibilities to its subordinates. Thus, this concept is also known as Top-Down management which allows every manger to handle five to eight subordinates. The horizontal form increases the burden of the manager and thus increases the risk of chaos, mismanagement, mistakes and even conflicts due to inefficient outcome of the organisational objectives(Ashby, 2013). Whereas. Vertical form eliminates such chaos and problems of miscommunication as every manager has few subordinates to deal with. It results in long chain of command. Every department and branch has its own manager as per their working scope thus this form of structure has many mangers and many ranks with small area of control. Economic and efficient business performance and accountability along with coordination across the business can be achieved by the proper structure of organisation.

Organisational culture is the set of values, beliefs and rules and GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company has adopted task culture form . Task Culture form allows the company to form various teams to resolve the critical issues and problems of the organisation. Individuals with common interests and specialization form a team. Each member of team gives its best to achieve the objectives and goals of GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company(Bird, Saalfeld and Wüst, 2010).

1.2 Relationship between organisational structure and culture and its impacts on business performance

Organisation structure and culture are directly interrelated to each other. Organisation structure determines the roles and responsibilities of the individuals and groups within the organisation. This helps the management to continuously monitor the performances of the individuals and effectively communicate all the necessary information at different levels of the organisation. Whereas organisational culture defines the values and beliefs that are shared by all the individuals and leads to development of the positive environment within the organisation and this together results in efficient final outcome of the organisational goal. The organisational culture defines how the people relay with one another and share principles and ideas to reach a common goal(Blacher and 2014).

GlaxoSmithKline Healthcare Company follows the formal structure that ensures that every individual perform their own task effectively to achieve desired output. When every employee is free to work informally with their own attitudes, perceptions and behaviours it gives rise to an organisation culture. Thus, culture dictates how the company should be structured and GlaxoSmithkline Healthcare Company have adopted vertical form of organisation which has direct impact on the culture of the company. In vertical form of organisation, there are five to eight employees under the manager of company, having same kind of perceptions and beliefs. Manager of each team assigns tasks to them and they are supposed to report manager. GSK Healthcare Company is following task form culture, which is based on the formation of team on the basis of tasks allotted to a team having same interests and beliefs(Bocchi, and 2010).

It has both positive and negative impacts on the business performance of GSK. The positive impact of the vertical form of organisation that all the different policies, rules and regulation could be effectively communicated to its employees thus enhance the performance of the organisational goals. The drawback is the organisation culture of GSK is too complex and sometimes it leads to centralised decision-making, in which the lower level employees are not entertained.

1.3 Discuss the factors which influence Individual behaviour at work

Organisation is the group of individuals that contribute collectively to attain common goals of the organisation. Individual behaviour is dynamic in nature and thus there are various internal and external factors that influence the individual behaviour which are as follows:

Leadership: Managers and leaders of GSK Healthcare Company play an important role in influencing behaviour of the employees in the work place. Mangers make their employees comfortable so that they feel like working in the organisation and gives their best(Einarsen, and 2011). Leaders of GSK should have specialise skill of guiding and motivating their employees to improve their efficiency and should also appraise them for the same.

Perception: Perception means to be aware of the surroundings and interpret it accordingly. Every individual has its own thinking capabilities and senses to interpret the things thus, the employees in the individuals should have clear vision about the organisational goals, structures and culture so that they do not perceive wrong ideas and perceptions which could results in negative outcome and even build negative image of the company in the market.

Work Culture: Work Culture of the organisation should be such that employees are comfortable and motivated to work in. The work place should have positive and friendly environment without any chaos and mismanagement which could harass the employees and force them to quit. Negative environment in the work place demoralise the employees and directly affect the progress of the health care company(Farndale, Hope-Hailey and Kelliher, 2011).

Task 2

2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations

Leadership can be defined as process in which individual policies and directions are shared with all the employees of the organisation in such a manner that common desired goals of organisation could be achieved. It involves influencing others to have common vision to work effectively and ensure its sustainability in future. There are many types of leadership styles which can have the impact on different organisations. GSK is following the democratic leadership approach whereas its competitor Pfizer is following autocratic leadership approach . These styles affect every level of management from senior management to lower management.

GSK is following the democratic form of leadership which allows every individual to share its views and guidance regarding the strategies and policies with the employees and staff member. In this, leaders are having the right to make final decisions, but they can asks for opinions from each and every team member. Thus, it is also called as the participative leadership effects which relies on the consultation. But this type of leadership could lead to disagree and mismanagement between the seniors and employees as every individual have their own opinion and preferences(.Fernández-Muñiz, Montes-Peón and Vázquez-Ordás, 2012).

Pfizer is one of the competitor of the GSK which follows the autocratic leadership approach in which there is no involvement of employees at lower level in any kind of decision making. The organisation has a strict set of policies and procedures which every one required to follow. In this kind of leadership style, the leaders are effective, confident and comfortable in decision making process. Although any mistake made by the leaders directly affect the company's overall performance and even goodwill in the competitive market. Thus, top level management bears all the losses and responsibilities regarding company's position and performance.

2.2 Organisational theories underpinning the practice of management within Pfizer

Organisational theories are the theories which explain the organisation structure and its positive and negative impacts on the organisational ultimate goals. This is the type of discipline that studies the design and structure of the organisation and suggests the effective measures to improve its effectiveness(Flodgren and 2010). Manager of Pfizer is required to apply the various management styles and theories to manage the work force effectively and to gain better results. Following theories are required to be followed by organisation in order to attain its goals:

Scientific Management Theory: The main objective of this theory is to improve the labour productivity. There are four principles of Taylor's scientific management

  • Assign jobs that are suitable to the employees on the basis of their capabilities and abilities.
  • Work performance should be timely monitored.
  • Allocation of work between management and workers.
  • Manager need to gather information, analyse it and convert the complex rules and regulations into easy understandable form.

This theory has been adopted by the management of Pfizer company and also allots work responsibilities according to their capabilities. Thus, this theory believes that workers should be motivated and there should be cooperation between workers and management(Flodgren and 2011). If the workers are motivated by different ways, their work efficiency will be increased.

Human Relation Theory: This theory focusses on individuals in a workplace than the rules, regulations and procedures. It allows both the employees and managers to communicate effectively and interact on each issue to be resolve and each task to be completed. Pfizer has adopted this theory to motivate the employees by using motivational and emotional tactics that increases their productivity and efficiency. It want their employees to be work oriented ,efficient and productive.

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2.3 difference between scientific management and Japanese style management approaches and advantages and disadvantages of different management approaches

There are many approaches that management team could follow to manage its team to achieve its organisational goals(Mendes and Stander, 2011). There are 2 approaches, scientific management and Japanese style management approach which could be described below:

Scientific management approach is used by the Pfizer which comprises of 3 parts input, process and output. It introduces a structured configuration where personnel works as a combined unit.

Advantages of scientific management approach

Management of Pfizer has been improved its strategic and management decision-making due to the interrelationships between the management and its subordinates.

Disadvantage of scientific management approach

The drawback of this system is that it is a rigid method and it is not suitable for the pharmaceutical company.

Another well known theory is the Japanese style which is followed by GSK which emphasises on the human aspect. It is the theory which aims at the view point of individual.

Advantages of the Japanese style management approach

The management team of GSK focuses on the increase morale of its employees by motivating them. Thus. It deals with the human dimensions and easy to put into practise as it does not require any specialist for its formulation.

Disadvantage of Japanese style management approach

Since, this theory is based on the human dimensions which is reserved in nature regarding the adoption of any changes quickly and thus it is not easy to change the views of the people. Also, it does not consider the client's thought or feelings and opinions(Mohammad, Habib and Alias, 2011).

Difference between scientific management approach and Japanese style management approach

Japanese

Scientific Management

It has been adopted by GSK company, which allow them to give rise to a concept of industrial feudalism.

The manager of GSK tend to stay with its company for his entire career.

It has been adopted by the Pfizer company, by which the company started following the concept of individualism.

The manager of company tend to change.

Task 3

3.1 Impact of leadership styles on motivation

GSK is the pharmaceutical company which deals with the timely manufacturing of the life saving drugs and distribute them at right place and right time. Thus, efficient workers are required to achieve the goals of the company. So, It is necessary that all staff members feel motivated that would help in achieving goal of the company. Good leadership styles helps to motivate the employees in the following manner

Autocratic leadership style: This type of leadership style can be used by the organisation that operates in the market which rapidly changes. They can motivate people by giving monitory benefits which encourage them to put their best efforts. Rewards can inspire people to do much better and they will support to the cited firm at the time of changing period(Nutbeam, Harris and Wise, 2010).

Democratic leadership: This leadership style is very effective and positively impact on employees and enhance their satisfaction level. Leaders of Pfizer involve people and consult them regarding upcoming changes. This involvement will motivate them and they will give innovative ideas which can help in achieving goal of the organization. Active participation and taking suggestion from staff members will inspire them and they will feel satisfy in the workplace.

Laissez-faire leadership style: Sudden changes can create negative environment in the organization. In such condition management team of The Merck & Co can adopt this leadership style it will impact positive on the workers. As higher authorities can provide flexible working environment and can give them freedom. By this way people will not feel discouraged, hey will support the company. This will motivate them and they will put their best efforts for improving their services towards public(Punjaisri,and Wilson 2011).

3.2 Comparison of mcGrego and Herzberg motivational theories

There are various motivational theories that can inspire the employees to work efficiently which are as follows:

Mcgrego motivational theory

This theory suggested two different ways to motivate the employees of the organisation and he has formulated two models which describe the motivational level of the employees:

Theory X: This theory assumes that workers are not ambitious and they avoid their responsibilities. They do not accept changes and are self centered. Managers can motivate people by giving monitory benefits, it is the only way of motivating people in the organization.

Theory Y: This theory assumes that people like the working environment and they are able to find innovative ways of performing well. Mangers can motivate employees by fulling their self-esteem needs. By giving promotion opportunities, and involve them in decision making process higher authorities can motivate them.

GSK is following this concept of Theory Y to motivate its employees as it has efficient leadership and management which continuously encourage the employees and recruit the employees who wants to perform well and hard work.

Mc Grego Motivational  Theory, 2017

Source:  (Mc Grego Motivational Theory, 2017)

Hertzberg's theory

This theory defines the two factors to encourage the people in the organisation as motivation and Hygiene(Rahim, Jalaludin and Tajuddin, 2011). By giving recognition and responsibilities workers can be inspired. Apart from this good pay scale, positive relationship with every employee and senior can also motivate employees.

Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors, 2017

Source: Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors, 2017

Difference in both motivational theory is that X and Y focuses on two groups of people whereas Hertzberg loo all workers in single group and suggest different ways to motivate them, it treats all workers equally. X and Y is descriptive in nature whereas Hertzberg is prescriptive. McGrego concentrates that by giving monitory rewards company can motivate people whereas dual factor concept discuss hat lower level needs can not motivate people, by fulfilling higher needs and by providing them achievements and recognition people can get motivated(Salvemini and 2013).

3.3 Usefulness of motivational theories

For increasing the productivity of an organization, motivation of employees is essential. If GSK do not give incentives and cash bonuses to its staff members then people will be tired by doing monotones work and they will start getting frustrated and quit from the organisation to other alternative or will make excuse of getting rid of the work allotted to them. Monitory benefits can encourage them and can bring new energy in them. By this way managers of cited firm will be able to improve performance of employees. Herzberg theory concentrates on two factors that, satisfying the higher level needs of human beings, managers can increase satisfaction level of workers of GSK.

These motivational theories can enhance coordination among staff members of cited firm by this way people will actively participate in resolving work based issues and they will perform their duties well. Motivational theories are very useful as when changes in public policy occurs then staff members of GSK can feel demotivated but by applying motivational theories managers can encourage them and can make them loyal towards the brand. People will understand their responsibilities and will support managers well. Promotional barriers discourages the employees and their level of productively may get down. But by giving rewards, recognition managers of the company can inspire and can enhance their productivity level(Sandman and 2012).

Task 4

4.1 the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations.

Organisation need to work collectively to achieve the overall goal of the organisation. Thus, it require to work in team. Groups are directly influenced by their managers and leaders. Thus, managers and employees should set such standards and example as it is well known saying that example is better than perception. Good team work leads to efficient results of outcome in an organisation. Thus,the management should emphasise on this concept as an important factor. Each group believes that hard and smart work leads to success. Groups are mainly divided into 2 parts

Formal: These are the groups that are established by the management of company as part of an organisational structure. The are defined in terms of their purposes and roles.

Informal: These are employee centred groups whose aims and intentions may counter those off the official organisation. Here, the employees in the group draws their own norms and regulations.

In evaluating the behaviour of people in groups , number of key issues are-

Group size: The size of group size is one of the factor which determines its likely behaviour. If the group is large then it requires large number of formalisation than smaller group(Solomon, Russell-Bennett and Previte, 2012).

Purpose of group: Definite purpose within the organisational structure has been assigned to the work groups. They are often asked to focus their efforts on specific problems usually of short nature.

Nature of task: the nature of task has been dependent on the purpose and size of the group. Some of the tasks can be -

  • ongoing or routine.
  • Implementing new process or procedures,
  • creating new ideas
  • solving specific purposes or issues.
  • Important negotiations with customers or competitors

4.2 Factors which may promote and inhibit the development of effective team work

As the GSK is having different types of team e.g. accounts, research and development, supply and demands teams which are having their own goals and objectives which have to be attain by them in the pre decided time period. As they are having huge demands from the market so it is essential for teams to work effectively and appropriately to maintain their work speed. Some of the factors are here which can impact on the team to develop effective team work from the team members

Communication: It is an essential element for the team which are working in the GSK, each and very member have to be communicative with the others to covey their view and innovative ideas among the team members which can promote the effectiveness of the team(Suppiah and Singh Sandhu, 2011).

Diversity: As the company is having many of the employees which are having diversity in culture and talents so it can increase the effectiveness of the team by increasing scope of thinking. Team members can make more innovative ideas by it.

Personal conflicts: Issues and conflicts in between the team members can reduce the work flow of the team to attain their shared goals by the leaders of the GSK. So it is an responsibility of the management to reduce the conflictual issues in between the team members to maintain the coordination in between the team members.

Difference in between the team members: As the management had divide their team so it not possible for the management to select similar habits and skills in each team members which impact on the team's performance. So this cause can make difference in between the performance of the team members so it can be inhibit the development of effective team work(Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010).

4.3 Evaluation of the impact of technology on team functioning

As the GSK is having different types of team which are having huge need of the technology to perform their business activities. Some of the teams are here and evaluation of the impact of the technology on these:

Accounts team: All of the accounts work are based on the computer accounting which helps to the company to keep their records for a long time periods and as well as it impacts on the company to make proper accounting of each and every particulars transaction of the company. But technical error can be a cause for the company to loss their accounts data so they have to keep a hard copy also.

Research and development team: Technology has a huge importance for the research and development team because they have to make more fine nano technology to make more effective medicine to cure the diseases of their users. All of the research work are done by the technical team in the company and this part has done in the laboratories where many types of machines are used by the GSK. Results authenticity and accuracy is much important part for the company so it is essential for the company to use authentic machines and technology which can give them accurate results to them(Tsai and Wu, 2010).

Conclusion

From the above report it can be concluded that understanding group behaviour and motivate them accordingly is the key which can help in getting success in the corporate world. By developing strong relationship with workers and by providing them non-monitory and monitory benefits organizations can encourage people and can increase productivity. Use of appropriate leadership impact a lot, it is necessary that managers adopts appropriate leadership style at the time of changes. Otherwise, people will not support and they will resist changes. Report has discussed about team working by building team spirit leaders and higher authorities can accomplish organizational goal significantly.

References

  • Agarwal, U.A and et. al., 2012. Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International.
  • Alfes, K. and et. al., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management.
  • Ashby, W., 2013. Design for a brain: The origin of adaptive behaviour. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Bird, K., Saalfeld, T. and Wüst, A.M. eds., 2010. The political representation of immigrants and minorities: Voters, parties and parliaments in liberal democracies. Routledge.
  • Blacher, S and et. al., 2014. Cell invasion in the spheroid sprouting assay: a spatial organisation analysis adaptable to cell behaviour. PloS one.
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