This Assessment covers following questions:
- Evaluate the impact of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of others in an organisational context.
- Explain how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve organisational goal.
- Show an understanding of how to cooperate effectively with others.
- Implement concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour to a given business situation.
This assignment is about management and organisational behavior which studies human behavior and the way of interactions between employees in the organisational settings. It also studies what workers does and feel in and around an organisation. It is important for the employees to have a better environment while working in company, so that they can perform their tasks well. This report is about 4Com Plc, which deals in the telecommunication sector, and it operates in UK. Organisational behaviour is an important source for the company to have better results. Apart from this, the powers and political behaviours of managers also influence the employees in different ways (Ali, 2010).
P1 Analyse the influence of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of others in an organisational context
Organisational culture is based upon beliefs, customs, interactions with the outside world and future expectations. It is also known as cooperate culture which defines the moods, attitudes, and motivation of staff members within the company. It is important for the company (4Com Plc), to have a good cultural organisation, so that workers are more likely to enjoy work and complete their tasks. Through this context, Handy's typology consists of four types of culture which the company should follow for the betterment of the firm.
According to Charles Handy, organisational culture is defined into four types of culture. These cultures are important for staff members of 4Com Plc to work and to reach their allotted tasks. These are as under:
- Power culture: This culture defines the work of individual and its performance within the organisation. It is operated or controls from the centre and the decisions are made by one or small number of people. If the decisions of the 4Com Plc are taken by founders/decision makers then it would lead to success as power culture depends on the strength of decisions.
- Role Culture: This culture is an important source for 4Com Plc in which same group of people interact day to day. In this, all individuals of the company are allotted with some specific tasks which helps them to reduce the amount of confusion and redundancies and can perform well.
- Task culture: It is formed to help the teams in solving their specific problems. This is also known as Matrix culture and is derived by the senior mangers of the company. In this, 4Com Plc members can develop and expand a set of skills in completing their particular tasks by allotting it to group of individuals.
- Person culture: In this culture, individuals see themselves as superior from other members. If 4Com Plc follows this culture then it would have negative effect on the company.
The structure which is followed within an organisation is role culture as this will aid in providence of equal opportunities to all the employees while they are performing their operations in an organisation.
Hofstede dimension cultural model
Culture model of Hofstede consists six dimensions which represents independent preferences for one state of affairs over another which distinguish countries from each other. Dimensions of model can be understood by the following points:
- Power distance index: This dimension indicates the degree to which individual with less power accept the unequal distribution of power among other individual of society. Main issue under this aspect is how society deal with all inequalities exist among individuals. People in societies showing a large amount of power accept hierarchical order, opposite of this societies with low power distance attempt to equal the distribution of power.
- Masculinity and femininity: This is another aspect and masculinity dimension reflect the preference of achievement, assertiveness and rewards for success in society. On the other hand, femininity shows caring and cooperation in society.
- Uncertainty avoidance index: This dimension reflects the degree to which individual of society feel uncomfortable with ambiguity. Fundamental issue under this aspect is that how people deal with the fact that future is unknown. Countries with high UAI maintain rigid behaviour on the other hand societies with low UAI remain more relaxed.
- Long term orientation versus sort term orientation: Every country requires to maintain link with the past in order to better deal with the challenges of future. Societies with low on this dimension like to maintain norms and tradition. Societies which score high on this encourage modern education in order to prepare individual for accept future.
- Indulgence versus restraint: This is another dimension of culture model in which indulgence reflect a society which allow individual to enjoy life. Restraint reflect the society which strictly follow social norms.
- Individualism versus collectivism: Individualism reflect the preference in which individuals only take care of themselves and their family members. collectivism represent a preference in which individuals of society take care of others.
French and Raven's power types
Power means, more power company members have, the more successful they will feel.
The authors, John French and Bertram Raven divided power into five types of leadership roles. In addition to this, they also showed how power is affected on one's leadership ability and success.
- Coercive power: This power is depend upon idea of coercion that means, 4Com Plc members are forced to do something against their will. The power is rely on threats in management.
- Reward power: In this, 4Com Plc members are willing to perform their jobs more efficiently when they know they will get rewards in return like promotions,compliments etc.
- Legitimate power: The power is to help others in their needs. It is a formal power which derived by the position hold by the 4Com Plc member. Basically, power is hold by the position in the company (Al-Zu’bi, 2010).
- Referent power: This power depends upon the trust the workers do and shows respect. It is gained by the 4Com Plc leader through leadership styles and ability to handle the situations.
- Expert power: It is based upon the information, knowledge or expertise. 4Com Plc leaders having expert power tend to have more intelligence and trust in solving various organizational roles.
Political behaviour of managers
According to the Chanlat's characteristics political behaviour of managers towards their employees can have a negative effect on the company 4Com Plc. Politics leads to low employee performance on various aspects. If there is politics in the company then employees will not stay in the company for the longer time and due to this company will not going to stay in the competition with other organisation any more. This will have direct negative impact upon the employees as they demotivated within the organisation. The impact upon team can be understood from the fact that they don't have trust on each other which negatively impacts the foundation of team. The overall performance of an organisation diminished and not able to complete their targets within stipulated period of time.
P2 content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organisational context
Motivation is the important aspect which includes fulfilment of all the needs of an employees working within an organisation to satisfy their requirements. This will have direct positive impact upon the performance of employees as they feel important part of an organisation and ready to work hard in all situations. There are two different theories are persist named as content and process. Both these theories have their different feature and role in the process of motivation of employees. But both these have ultimate effect upon the motivation of employee and accomplishment of desired objectives of an organisation within stipulated period of time (Ayyagari, Grover and Purvis, 2011).
Content theory of motivation
Motivation is a key towards success. It gives strength and hits workers to work hard. Content theory implements on all internal factors and human needs which changes with time. It involves many different theories but here is discussed about the Maslow's hierarchy of need theory which helps to learn more about it.
Maslow's hierarchy of need theory
Maslow's hierarchy of need is given by Abraham Maslow. This is a motivational theory which involves five-tier models of human needs and they are, psychological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
- Psychological needs: This theory involves human needs for food, clothing, accommodation,etc. It is essential for 4Com Plc to fulfil the psychological needs of their employees. If these need are not gratified, then worker cannot perform its functions well.
- Safety needs: Safety needs are other important human needs which helps 4Com Plc employees to work for longer period. These needs involves security for job, safe environment in which the employee is working in and protection from all elements. It is important for 4Com Plc to make their workers feel safe while they are working. This helps them to stay in the company for long term.
- Love and belongings needs: This is the third level of human need which involves love and feeling of belongingness. There should be trust, friendship, love and affection in the company between 4Com Plc members. They must feel some attachments from their 4Com Plc staff to work with them.
- Esteem needs: These needs incudes power of dignity, independence, self-confidence in staff members. It is important for 4Com Plc members to feel free while working in company. Every employee should have its reputation and gain respect in the field of working (Baum, Frese and Baron, 2014).
- Self-actualization needs: These needs help workers in doing all the work in which they are capable. In this, employee realises there personal potential and self-fulfilment. It gives courage to 4Com Plc members to become something they are capable of.
Herzberg theory of motivation
This theory was given by Herzberg and he gave that there are some job factors that results in satisfaction but there are also some elements which prevent dissatisfaction. Mainly Herzberg classified the job factors into two categories given as follows:
- Hygiene factors: These elements are those which are very important to exist at workplace as these factors motivate an individual to work well. These element does not offer a satisfaction for long term but absence of these element results in dissatisfaction. Fringe benefits, pay, company policies, interpersonal relations, job security and working conditions all come under this category.
- Motivational factors: These factors are those which provide positive satisfaction to individuals. Elements which come under this aspect encourage an individual for higher performance. sense of achievement, recognition, Meaningfulness of work, growth of promotional opportunities and responsibility skill come under this.
Process theory of Motivation
Process theory of motivation is concerned with the development and changes occurred in individual. It deals with, how motivation occurs in employees and its processes. In this content, there are some process of theory motivation discussed which explains the above statement. In this regard, Expectancy theory is discussed below.
Expectancy theory is given by Victor Vroom in 1964. In this theory, author stated that the employees will only work when they have expectations that their work will come to a desired output. It is important for 4Com Plc members to have faith or expectancy regarding their allotted work. This will lead them to put more efforts and yield better performance. The author also illustrates that the employees performance is based upon skills, experience and ability.
Improved levels of motivation
The levels of motivation in 4Com Plc members improved which help the company in making desired outputs. It assists the company, in reducing risks of employee resigning and job insecurity. This also create flexibility in the company environment which will lead to achieve company goals. So, to stand in the competitive market motivation is an important aspect for the company and its employees (Coccia and Rolfo, 2013).
P3 Effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Team dynamics: Psychological and unconscious forces that influence performance and behaviour of team is known as team dynamics. These are mainly crated by the nature of team’s work and al the personalities who work in a team. Team dynamic can be good or can be bad also.
Difference between effective an ineffective team
In effective team participation and leadership is equally distributed among the employees of an organisation as this will aid in attainment of goals and effective internal maintenance
Under ineffective team leadership and participation is not equally disbursed among the employees which will prove as the demotivating factor that has negative impact on the performance of other employees.
In effective team the power is equalised in all employees and effectively shared. This will provides the opportunity to each and every employee to give their best towards the organisation and achieve organisational objectives within stipulated period of time.
The power among the employees in not equally distributed under ineffective team. This will proves as demotivating factor as they not get the equal opportunities as compared to others how have power in their hand. This will have negatively impacts the performance of employees and having overall diminishing impact upon the organisational profitability
All the employees within an effective team are cooperative in nature and having the goal of problem solving. This will aid in removal of the conflicts from the team and attainment of objectives within stipulated period of time.
The nature of employees within an ineffective team is not cooperative in nature and they always focus on completion of their own demands. This will have negative impact upon the attitude and mind set of other employees as they feel that they are not supportive in nature and creates negative working environment.
Importance of teams in an organisation
A team is a group of members who work together to achieve a common goal. In context of organization, it play an important role in attaining set goals in allotted time frame. Mainly, teamwork is important for 4Com Plc, because it provides employees all the opportunities which helps them to maintain their relations. For attaining end goals, manager of 4Com Plc classified its teams into different groups which are as stated below.
- Functional teams: This team is a group of functional expert members who works together on the same objective. In context of 4Com Plc, managers of this team have authority to manage all internal and external operations of particular department. Mainly, in functional teams all members have different responsibilities but they all work to same functions to attain determined goals.
- Importance: This team help in developing creativity and innovating ways to perform tasks.
- Problem solving teams: These types of teams are temporary in nature but their main motto is to solve a specific issue. It is helpful for 4Com Plc to identify and observe the things which should be rectified in time to acquire pre-set target.
- Importance: It is important for company to resolve issues that arise in workplace.
- Project teams: In this team, members are belong to different groups but are assigned to work on a particular project. This team assists 4Com Plc managers in grouping employees to assign clear roles, responsibilities and deadlines of projects.
- Importance: It is important for company to complete assigned projects in allotted time frame (DeChurch and Mesmer-Magnus, 2010).
- Virtual teams: These teams are helpful to communicate with the people who are far away through social networking sites or collaboration technologies. It is important for 4Com Plc managers to choose these members because they have excellent communication skills. It is helpful for 4Com Plc managers because employees can perform their tasks with minimal supervision.
- Importance: Virtual teams are important to maintain coordination with employees living in geographical regions through conferencing and other modes.
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Makes an effective team in the 4Com Plc
Effective team is a team to accomplish goals or objectives administered by an authorized organisation. Appropriate leadership, cleared objectives, trust and support in the organisation makes 4Com Plc an effective team. In this regard, 4Com Plc use some theories to reach their targets. All these theories are understood in the following statement.
Tuckman and Jensen’s model of team development
This model of team development is given by Bruce Tuckman. In context of 4Com Plc, it described through four stages of team formation which are criticised as below.
- Forming: This is the first important stage of team formation in which teams are assembled and given tasks. In context of 4Com Plc, it is important for team leader to be very clear about the goals and projects. It is beneficial for the company because each member become oriented regarding their allotted tasks and perform well.
- Storming: In this stage, employees starts to sort out the terms and gain other's trust. Through this, 4Com Plc mangers get to know about individual working styles and identify different status positions in the group. It is an advantage for the company because they know how to sort out things easily.
- Norming: In this third stage, employees started to do their work more effectively as a team. Instead of focusing on an individual goals, they started to work in a developing manner of working together. In context of 4Com Plc, team members started helping and resolving others conflicts rather than competing each other. This is benefited for the company, as it maintains a coordination between members which is helpful in attaining goals.
- Performing: This is a last stage in which teams started functioning at a very high level. In this, their only focus is on reaching their desired goals of company. Under this stage, 4Com Plc team members can easily take right decisions and at the same time quickly solve issues that occur at workplace. This helps the company in getting their jobs done with minimal supervision and conflict (.DeChurch and Mesmer-Magnus, 2010.).
Belbin’s team roles.
Belbin's team roles is also known as Belbin Self-Perception Inventory (BSPI). This role model is designed to use the talent, skills and personalities of team members. This helps to recognise the nature and behaviour of an employee while working together. 4Com Plc use these role models as complimentary to make its teams productive and effective which are examined below.
- Implementer: It puts ideas and plans to make tasks more easier and executable. It is helpful for 4Com Plc in turning their ideas into actions and organises its work which needs to be done in allotted time.
- Resource Investigator: This person is optimistic in nature with lots of contacts within and outside the team. Resource investigator of 4Com Plc, is good naturally in making and developing new connections within and outside the teams.
- Plant: It is the prolific thinker of the team carrying lots of innovative and original solution of issues. It plays a dramatic role in 4Com Plc because it resolves difficult problems of related issues quickly and easily.
- Monitor: In this role, the monitor of the team is sensible, understanding and of critical insight. The monitor of 4Com Plc analysis the situations and get to the bottom of things.
- Shaper: Under this role, shaper of 4Com Plc knows how to met the goals within its deadlines. It provides guidelines and overcome with all the obstacles that comes between the gaols.
- Coordinator: It is the member of 4Com Plc which coordinates with its team members, helps them in their works and summarizes what everyone wants.
- Completer finisher: It looks after the organisation and has the ability to feel what is going wrong in 4Com Plc. He puts an eye and do checking or rechecking of the work done by the employees (Haslam and et.al., 2014).
- Team worker: Under this, team worker of 4Com Plc plays a vital role in creating a pleasant atmosphere and developing a sense of togetherness between the employees.
- Specialist: In this, it is an advisor of 4Com Plc who gives advice on a particular topic which enhance team worker’s knowledge and technical skills towards a specific task.
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P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour within an organisational context and a given business situation
Path goal theory
This theory states that employees are incomplete without support leaders. If ''followers'' have clear path then they can easily proceed towards set goals. This theory is used by leaders for motivating workers, they resolve problems of personnels and work on their shortcomings. It can be considered as an appropriate way for improving organisational behaviour. Path goal theory has three parts, leader behaviour, contingency factors and subordinate attitudes & behaviour. 4Com is a growing firm and effective application of this theory can bring positive changes in the organisational behaviour. Below are the three steps where company should concentrate at the time of applying Path-goal theory:
Leaders Behaviour – This will includes about the ability of leader regarding adjusting their styles according to the characteristics and behaviour of employees. This will includes four different type of behaviours which are defined below:
Directive: This will includes about change in styles adopted by leader and telling them how to perform and coordinate to complete the work effectively. This will aid in completion of the task when employees of an organisation are not known about the role and tasks which they have to perform.
Supportive: This will shows up the supportive and concerning behaviour of leader towards the employees while they are performing their tasks within the organisation. This will aid the employees in the process of completing physically challenging tasks.
Participative: This will includes about inclusion of the employees in the decision making processes as this will help to attain their trust and loyalty (Hershcovis, 2011).
Achievement: This will includes about providence of challenging roles and to perform at highest level which help to build their confidence.
Contingency theory: This theory says that there is no best way to organise a company and to make decision. According to this theory effective leadership not only rely on the style of leaden but also depend on the control over the situation. To achieve success, it is very important there should be strong member and leader relations. Leaders remain responsible to delegate tasks according to the set goal. Leader require to possess the ability to hand out both rewards and punishments.
It has been concluded from the above report that there is huge impact of culture, power and politics upon the performance of management and organisational behaviour. It is the duty of the management is to provide emphasis on these factors and build the equal policies help in motivation of employees. There are two different theories of motivation which are known as content and process. Both theories having the aim regarding fulfilment of the different needs of a employee and accomplish the organisational objective. It is important for every organisation to build effective team as this will aid in creation of positive working environment. Application of the models like Tuckman and Belbin help to understand the requirement of the aspects which are needed in the process of creating effective team.