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Theories of Management and Leadership Styles: Marks and Spencer

University: Waltham International College

  • Unit No: 5
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 11 / Words 2812
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: MNGT3012
  • Downloads: 701
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Two pillars of an organisation are manager and leader who are responsible for performing various activities for the efficient performance of an organisation. Characteristics of a manager and a leader with their functions are described. They stand in different situation and circumstances for an M&S. Organisation is the combination of different management systems. A management system is mainly led by manager of the company and it is run by leaders and followers(Hatten,2015.). The useful out comes can be obtained by proper planning, skills and by using different models of approaches. Theories of management and models are described here with analysis of different leadership styles.


Q.1. Role and characteristics of a manager and a leader.

Manager is a person who is appointed to manage and control the different departments of an organisation. There are many qualities of a manager which are very helpful to maintain interactions with different people. Self motivation is first characteristics. It means there must be ability of self grow so that others can be motivated by you. Everyone needs a man who can listen to them, integrity is a personal character of a manager and personally they should help their employees in every aspects. To be optimistic is a very good part of a manager because this provide positive attitudes to think ahead. This man must have hope of good future result. Confidence is always necessary that is very helpful in taking decisions within M & S. Confident level is always a deciding factor for good outcomes of a company(Bolman,and Deal ,2017). They should be of calm nature, aggression may lead to many negative happenings that may cause harm to the organisation. Calmness is the key factor that would make a man cool and decisions and operations can be handled easily.

Flexibility means changes must be adoptable by a manager in an adverse situation. This quality is also helpful in collaborating their employees. All informations' ad knowledge related to company must have a manager. They must have capability to recognise the ability of a worker that who can do well. They must be aware of basic money management so that financial concepts of any given project can be understood easily. Business hierarchy is chain system of every organisation so its necessary to understand it so that it would be easy to understand the duties. Public speaking confidence is necessary to announce or address their workers and employees. Now it comes to communication skill of a manager that help them to communicate effectively with their speaking and written communication. They should know how to organise their presentation which is helpful in presenting a clear and concise presentation in meetings. Functions of a manger is always co related with characteristics that they posses. It is important to understand that they are also a player of organisational team and must have capacity to work with others. They should always try to make good relationships with other organisation and a reputed image in market(Aarons ,Ehrhart Farahnak and et.al., 2015). This may be helpful in maintaining good customer service and to discover customer relationships. Risk must be taken by a manager for the better growth of M&S.

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Leader is an important element of an organisation who directs the functions of a management. Co-ordinating quality of a leader may help to create interests of workers to achieve the specific goal. It is true that their decisions are based on others but they can apply new directions and ways in order to complete the goal. Good personality of a leader may attract the people. Apart from these there are also many other good qualities of a leader like ability to guide each other, communicating skills, sociable, self confidence, good understanding and sound judgement and many more. They must have motive power to motivates their followers. They must have capability to minimize the risks and to maximize the productivity of an organisation.

M1. Analysing the role of a leader and functions of manager in different situations.

Situational approaches suggest the different style of leader and manager. According to situation the role of a leader and functions of a manager is fluctuated(Wirtz ,Pistoia,Ullrich and et.al., 2016). Both have positive attitudes toward goals but the way they work for the same situation is different. One example is taken here, plans are made by a manger for a specific goal and the same plan is followed by a leader. But the directions which are chosen by leader may be different to complete the same goal. A problem that is occurred by a leader is informed to manager and that will be shorted out by the common discussion of manager and leader. Different alternative s are analysed by a leader and then the best alternative is selected. The selective alternative is presented to the followers. Decisions which are taken by a manger also depend upon the capability of their subordinates. If manager realize that their subordinates are not able to complete the task then the followers are guided by a leader, after that any decision is taken.

Q.2. Examine the role of a leader and manager in different situation with examples.

Adverse situations are raised externally or internally like workers demand problem, customer issues, products and services issues. So at that time it is necessary to take care of behaviours of not only the person. A difficult employee should be addressed by leader in order to minimize the problems which is occurred to the workers. Finally, the decision would be taken by the management. if any customer issues is found related to the products and services. Manager will make an investigation about the concern issues, then it is passed to leader and again investigation is done by leader that why the issues are being occurred. Leader is selected by a company so that he would be able to preform their responsibilities in a situational condition too. Adjustment is the first characteristic of as situational leader so that they can deal according to the behaviour and skill level of the employees. The selection of work which is to be handed over must be assessed by the ability of a worker. This assessment is done by both, leader and manager of M&S.

During high demand of products in market, a manager needs to make a plan so that their productivity can be increased with the same number of workers. Manager should always be aware of everything which is needed for efficient and rapid results or outcomes. Motivations and support should always be given by leader(Kerzner,and Kerzner, 2017). It may be possible that overtime work is provided to a leader and a manager then it should be completed for the development of an organisation. If any situational condition is occurred and it is need to be solved then the sources should be identified first. For example the employers are dealing with lots of stress during work, it is necessary to find out the reasons by a manager or a leader. They should recognize whether it is caused by too much work load or any conflict ion among the employers. Situations always revels the fitness of work of a leader or a manager. They should be talked personally about the problems. They should try to make their employees get together to short out the problems and they must be encouraged to work together efficiently.

Q.3. Different theories and models of approach for an organisation.

All companies always hope to drive with a fast growth in market but it is not too easy to be like this. Many types of business model innovations are accepted by the companies to be in a race of business(Clegg,2015).

1.Lewin's change management model: This model was created by Kurt Lewin in 1950s and still it is applied to business. There are mainly three stages are involved in this model:

Unfreeze: This includes the preparation of changes in business because market is being changed according to time.

Change: It is the stages n where changes start to take place and it takes time because new happenings, development and new resolutions are being taken. In this condition there must be a good leadership because its not only about to move in a right direction but it is necessary to move with smart and easier process.

2.McKinsey 7 S Model: The name of this mode revels that this contain 7 necessary steps which is to be followed in a business.

Strategy: Strategies are planned to get the future goal. This is the stage where the plans are made with different changes that are applied during work.

Structure: Organisation is divided according to the work performed by the departments.

Systems: the activities which are performed daily within organisation are affected by the systems.

Shared value: These are the core values of an organisation according to which the work is done and completed in tim(Wilson,2017. )

Style: The way of doing work is known as style. Many types of styles may be adopted to complete the task. It must be in a smart way by which work is made easier.

Staff: The working capacity of staffs in an organisation play a very important role in achieving the goal. They are the working pillars and their acceleration of working results the better outcome of an organisation.

Skills: Skill of every working employee matters for organisation that show the attitude of working.

Theory Approaches: Most acceptable theory in management is given by Fayol including 14 principles and five basic ways to control an organisation.

Planning: Planning is needed to operate every single management. It consists of process and process followed by the company or management.

Organising: Organising the things are very important to run the planned process. Organising process should be completed at appropriate time of production.

Commanding, coordinating and controlling, these all three ways are used to encourage control and evaluate the management.

Leadership: It is style of a leader that is applied to motivate people, make plans and to find out new directions to achieve goals.

Situational leadership: It is the leadership in which the fitness of work is analysed according to the situation, This shows that there is no other best style of leadership but better is that which can be applied effectively in a given situation. Style of working in situational leadership is telling, selling, participating and delegating(Fayol, 2016).

System leadership: when a high performance organisation is developed with an appropriate goal, system leadership is needed. This consist of number of people who is working in within a system with different management systems. These type of leadership is dependable but having high performance with big results.

Contingent leadership: This leadership states that the effectiveness of leadership is depended upon the situation. It is not necessary that everything is performed according to planning. So this theory is also known as situational theory. The most of the actions are depended upon external and internal situations(Nag and Das, 2015).

M2 .Assessment of strengths and weakness of different approaches.

M&S is British retailer having the strong point is that it has introduced a no quibble refund policy which is very helpful in mainlining good customers' relation. This is providing a convenience and friendly way of shopping to the customers. It is dealing in market with different varieties of products in market like clothing, gifts, home furnishing and foods items too. Its expansion is in more than 34 countries across the world. Strong point is that it has great online marketing with developed technologies. It has superior management skills that is helpful in providing a firm leadership position in the world market.

Weakness of this organisation is that it gets entered into export market without looking the target. They only looked to the other retailers and started to export the products and those retailers were targeting the market. The entrance of M&S in different market with different partners and this causes the closure of retailer shop within a short period. They had lack of strategies vision in starting but now it has a good balance in local and global market. SWOT and PESTLE analysis is very important to understand all the factors that contribute the strength and weakness of an organisation.

Students also like to check: Key Approaches of Leadership and Management

D. Analysing different theories and approaches to leadership

Including the above context, leadership is a complex process in which a leader's qualities and skills are the most important element.

Leadership theory evolved with the needs and expectations of work. Different leadership has different styles of working in different situations. But there are common approaches of leadership theory(Gerasimov and Gerasimov,2014).

  • Qualities or Traits approach: Leaders are not made, they are born with their readership qualities.
  • Functional approach: The qualities may be in gene but it is developed and learnt in outside world with focus, responsibilities and numerous activities.
  • Behavioural approach: Behaviour of people should be noticed and focused in a leadership because it influences group performances.
  • Situational approach : Changes are done according to the situation of external and internal factors of management.
  • Transactional approach: This is self motivated approach of followers to achieve a goal.
  • Transformational approach: Performance are transformed by motivating the others with great and high ideas to achieve specific goal.


Management of organisations are depended on various factors. Controlled external and internal factors can make a better approach for an organisation. Analysis is important including SWOT and PESTLE. All theories and models are applied for a successful business. The role of manager, leader, and the workers are mainly considered for working of organisation. All required theories and models are described above with the organisational approaches. Organisation is needed to asses their strength and weakness for better approaches.

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Books and Journals

Aarons, G .A., Ehrhart, M.G., Farahnak, L. R. and et.al., 2015. Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation. Implementation Science.10(1).p.11.

Bolden, R., 2016. Leadership, management and organisational development. In Gower handbook of leadership and management development (pp. 143-158). Routledge.

Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E., 2017. Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Clifton, J., 2017. Leaders as ventriloquists. Leader identity and influencing the communicative construction of the organisation. Leadership.13(3).pp.301-319.

Fayol, H., 2016. General and industrial management. Ravenio Books.

Gerasimov, B. N. and Gerasimov, K. B., 2014. Modeling the development of organization management system. Asian Social Science.11(20).p.82.

Hatten, T. S., 2015. Small business management: Entrepreneurship and beyond. Nelson Education.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H. R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Nag, D. and Das, N., 2015. Development of various training methods for enhancing the effectiveness and skill development among micro-entrepreneurs in India. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education.18(1). p.1.

Wilson, F .M., 2017. Organizational behaviour and gender. Routledge.

Wirtz, B .W., Pistoia, A., Ullrich, S. and et.al.,, 2016. Business models: Origin, development and future research perspectives. Long Range Planning. 49(1).pp.36-54.

Young, W., Davis, M., McNeill, I. M., Malhotra, B., Russell, S., Unsworth, K. and Clegg, C. W., 2015. Changing behaviour: successful environmental programmes in the workplace. Business Strategy and the Environment.24(8). pp.689-703.

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