Introduction To Literature Review
This literature review is focusing on the perception of teachers and it can provide clear guidance to them in order to teach gifted and talented people. Teachers need to adopt different teaching styles in order to make process more effective as well as to make it suitable to different type of students.
Perception of teachers towards gifted and talented students
It is an obvious fact that every university has students with different capabilities and knowledge set. The learning quality or time period in which any student grasps the matter is also totally different. This different learning pattern possessed by different students provides teachers with power to adopt different teaching pattern so that they can handle both slow and fast learning students in a more efficient and effective manner. (D'Agustino, 2012).
Kolb: It is very much essential for individual to gain different sort of learning and knowledge in order to boost their competency and also to attain more of fruitful rewards and benefits.
In this respect, a teaching style come up front which involves four categories those can be used by teachers to make students possessing different capabilities learn the subject matter.
- Concrete Experiences: This is a stage in which gifted and talented students possess experience of certain situation or might be possible that they encounter same sort of experience many time in the light of doing something different with that of other students due to their anxiety and curiosity (McDonnell and Shiri, 2011).
- Reflective Observation: This is the point in which individuals watch certain activities and gains experiences of it. Individuals in this regard, evaluate their experiences by gaining feedback and review form different concerned officials in order to attain more insight of issues.
- Abstract Conceptualization: At this stage, thinking is incorporated by individuals regarding the concrete experiences and reflective observation. This practice develops ideas and thoughts among gifted and talented students from which they able to construct a way which is very much different to abstract concept (Hattie, 2013).
- Active Experimentation: Casey state that by feeling, watching and thinking about concerned activity, students essentially applies it in the real world in order to gain real experiences of thinking.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: This is a model which describes the objective of learning which teachers utilize in order to offer sound learning to their students. In other words, it can also be defined as a hierarchical order of grasping skills that help teachers to teach in better way and assist students to learn in an efficient manner. This model is certainly bifurcated into three basic domains namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Montgomery stated that there are basically 6 set of competences in this regard that are demonstrated below:
- Knowledge: This is the practice in which recalling of facts, concepts and answers are taken into account by teachers in order to offer learning to different set of students of gifted and talented nature.
- Comprehension: In this method, a teacher amends topic that are originally stated in critical language having jargon that create a barrier in communication between teacher and student in their own language. This process makes it easy to deliver the actual knowledge to students. (Montgomery, 2006).
- Application: Montgomery states that practical exposure makes leaning easier. In this regard, teachers try to apply theoretical concepts in such a way to practical life that it is better understood by students and another benefit in this regard is that this type of learning remains for a longer period of time.
- Analysis: Teacher many a times interpret with the help of different elements and also entail more of conceptualization o that better understanding to students can be offered.
- Synthesis: Under this method, teacher is under perception that if they will adopt new and unique structures than they can make learning easy for extra ordinary students. They also believe that through this method, students may develop more creative viewpoint towards subject matter. (Mueller and Sanman 1999).
- Evaluation: At this stage, judgment is developed by pupils regarding ideas and thoughts. This helps in reviewing and justifying the ideas and essentially aids high amount of learning among students (Silverman, 2002).
Students adopt various types of learning strategies which help them in understanding the problem in accurate manner and they can solve the issues in just one click. Choice of this technique is in accordance of skill and capabilities of individual. This technique must be able to provide every required information. According Joan Freemen (2013) if students are not able to choose appropriate learning strategies then they won’t be in position to grasp the things in well manner and their leaning process will stop at that point of time only and it will also put a question mark on their development too.
Teaching styles (spectrum theory)
Teachers have different type of teaching style which they adopt in their teaching methodology. It is essential for teachers to have different types of teaching abilities in order to provide appropriate learning to the students. Spectrum theory has contributed immensely in the same aspect. According to this theory the teachers must not follow the same pattern to teach their every student.
In order to gain better insight of the learning strategies that is being offered to gifted and talented students, identification of their strength and weakness in very much required. Further opportunity and threats essentially aids in gaining more desirable learning.
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- Bailey, R. and Macfadyen, T., 2002. Teaching Physical Education 11-18: Perspectives and Challenges. Continuum.
- Burkill, B. and Eaton, R., 2010. Developing Teaching and Learning: The Textbook for the Cambridge International Certificate for Teachers and Trainers. Cambridge University Press.
- Casey, R. and Koshy, V., 2000. Special Abilities Scales: Observational Assessment for Identifying Able and High-potential Pupils : Teacher's Handbook. Hodder & Stoughton.
- Coulson-Thomas, C., 2000. Developing a corporate learning strategy. Industrial and Commercial Training. 32(3). pp.84 –88.
- D'Agustino, S., 2012. Toward a course conversion model for distance learning: a review of best practices. Journal of International Education in Business. 5(2). pp.145–162.
- Dunn, R. and Griggs, S., 2000. Practical Approaches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education. Greenwood Publishing Group.