Operation management can be define as controlling and designing the process of manufacturing as well as redesigning enterprise operational work with an organisation. Some operational task are manage inflow or outflow of inventory, maintain machineries, manage workforces, increase quality of product, design machine and many more. In this report select M & S. It is British international retail organisation that operate their business activities approx 979 store in the whole world. M & S has established in the year of 1884 by Thomas Spencer and Sir Michael Marks. Around 84939 workers are working here and earn £10.622 billion in the year 2017. M &S is a public limited company and their share are traded at different stock market like FTSE 100 index and London stock exchange etc. (Bahmani-Firouzi and Azizipanah-Abarghooee, 2014). Company has offer luxury food product and selling clothes, home product. In this assignment cover role of leaders and function of manager and its applicability of work place. Also cover key approaches of leadership, manager which are work in operational department of the company. In this report cover relationship between management and leadership.
P1 Different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager
Manager as well as leaders both have play very important role with in an organisation through this firm are able to achieve target in limited period of time. Both have different characteristics and role at work place that has explain as follows:
Leader: It can be define as person those have some vision, power, skills, direction, persuading, manage and many more. They are capabilities to influence staff members behaviour, thinking and achieve common goals in limited period of time (DeAnna and et. al., 2010).
Characteristic of leader:
- Honest: One of most important personality trait of leaders has honesty and credibility because entire group or team are depended on leaders. Those how are loyal with their members are good leaders and able to influence behaviour of individual effectively.
- Flexible: Leaders are always flexible in their working style and nature so that easily change according to situation. They are able for alter as well as maintain according to distinct condition. Leaders are creative in their nature so that easily find out solution of given problem and share new ideas with other employees to achieve target effectively.
- Optimistic: Leadership style which are optimistic in their nature thus help to achieve target effectively and reduce stress as well as difficulties of team. Leaders are optimistic when they lead a team at work place.
Role of leaders
- Innovative and creative: Leaders are always innovative as well as create in their nature through this they are able to achieve target with less efforts as well as effectively. It is a management responsibility to provide training to leader on time to time basis thus help to build innovative thoughts and ideas (Eyal and Haim, Clarizen Ltd., 2014).
- Plan and direct: It is a one of the most important function of leader through this they are able develop plan and implemented it among team members in order to achieve predetermine goals in given time frame.
- Align and organise: They are organise as well as align in their nature which help them to compete task effectively. Leaders are manage all team members it they are not organise them they can not able to work in organised manner.
Manager: It is person those are managing, controlling, organising, planing etc. at work place in order to achieve goals, vision and mission effectively. It is a management responsibilities to develop strategies and implemented it at work place in order to run whole business activities effectively.
Characteristic of manager
- Goal oriented: Manager of the M &S has focus toward their goals and work accordingly to achieve them effectively. It is a one of major function of management that are meet with certain aim in limited period of time.
- Persuasive: They are more persuasive in their nature in order to lead all employees effectively for meet target in given time frame appropriately.
- Multidimensional procedure: Manager are versatile in their work as well as personality so that they are capable to manage all activities and operational work appropriately to run entire business task effectively (Hammill and Tanner, 2011).
- Patience: This is a one of important traits in which manager are more patient for monitoring as well as controlling whole enterprise activities as per given requirement.
Mintzberg's role of management:
- Interpersonal role: Manager play important role at work place and one of best role of management is interpersonal through this they are able to build strong relationship between manager and staff members. Thus help to achieve goals when all employees work together effectively.
- Informational role: Monitoring, dissemination and spokesperson etc. is a manager role which help manage all workers in an effective ways (Heizer and Barry, 2013). Through this they identify each one individual performance and provide them information to get target in limited time period.
- Decisional role: Manager has take different kind of decision like entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resources allocation, negotiator etc. thus help operate business appropriately.
Difference between manager and leader
Manager are develop objectives of the company.
Leaders are liable for implementing aim and objectives among members to achieve them in given time frame.
They are utilise all policies as well as regulation to leaders.
Leaders are reduce negatively of policies on employees mind.
Manager are coordinating all staff members with in an organisation in order to manage them effectively.
They are capable to develop motivation as well as influence workers behaviour effectively to attain organisation goals.
P2 Role of leader and function of manager in different situations
Leaders and manager has different role and responsibilities at work place, it has change with situation. So that, management of the company has assigning task to both leader and manager accordingly to given condition like restructure of organisation, planning, controlling and many more (Lind, 2013). In order to achieve common goals and objectives, human resources executive has organising training program so that leaders know how it react in particular situation and find out appropriate solution in given time frame. Manager has also take advantage of training event and build confidence to face all kind of situations easily. Here are explain some condition and manager as well as leaders role, responsibilities in this which are explain as follows:
- Planning and coordinating: Manager of M &S has develop plan to run business activity effectively and leaders are implemented it at work place by coordinating with staff members. Both manager as well as leaders has their own different role in given situations and work together in order to achieve goals in limited period of time.
- Organising: Management of M & S has develop strategies in order to restructure organisation work thus help to operate business effectively. In given situation, leaders are organising all staff members appropriately in order to achieve their target in given time frame (López and et. al., 2015). They are recruiting candidates and providing them induction training so that they are easily familiar with firm working environment resulted work effectively.
- Leading and Socialising & commanding: It is a one of the another situation in which leaders of M & S has lead a team and commanding all members effectively to gain given target appropriately. It is a leaders liabilities to provide guidance to manager in order to lead workforces toward mission and vision of the company. Manager of M & S has motivating employees by develop strategies and leader implemented it at work place.
- Controlling and conceptualisation: Administrate of M & S has develop plan with conceptualise theories and methods resulted enhance staff members performance as well as productivity in long run. M & S has track action of plan effectively in order to get desire outcome of their efforts (Mendis, Muttaqi and Perera, 2014).
So that, each one situations has different from each other and management of M &S has develop strategies to operate business activities effectively in each one condition. Both manager as well as leaders has their own role and responsibilities to work and achieve predetermine target effectively.
P3 Several different kind of theories and model of leadership
In present business environment there are various different type of model as well as theories has develop performance of leaders it is a management responsibilities to make healthy relationship between employees and employer so that entire business activities has run effectively. Some important theory of leadership are detail as follows:
- Situational leadership: This theory was established in the year of 1969 by Paul Hersey as well as Kenneth Blanchard. According to that, each one situation has different from other and no one signal leadership style has suitable for all condition. It is a one of most important model of leadership which are used by several organisation at their work place. According to this, leaders are has change their working style according to given situations as well as condition (Mohammadi, and et. al., 2013). For example, leader of M &S store has see floor worker are not able to sever quality of services to clients and they want training for that, in this situation leader organise training event and get higher performance of each one staff members.
- System theory: This model has developed in the year of 1954 by Ludwid Von Bertalanffy and its modifying by Peter Senge in the year of 1990. It is based on principles and policies of the company those are help in dealing with numerous condition at work place. For example, M & S has implemented are government legislation at their work place in order to attain aim in given time frame through this they are play several different role like controlling, leading, planing and coordinating etc. in a more effective ways.
- Contingency theory of leadership: This model are developed by Lorsch and Lawrence in the year 1967. It says optimal works are contingent in their nature and that depend on different various external elements as well as leaders. Thus claimed that leaders those are contingent in their nature that should be apply according to given condition (Nakayama and Bucks Eds., 2012). For example, M &S has develop contingency in their leaders so that they are capable to develop chance of improvement as well as achievement and capture it effectively thus help leaders to attain aim in limited period of time.
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Theories of Management and Leadership Styles
P4 Approaches of operation management and role of manager as well as leaders in it
Operational management has important department of each one business organisation and they have their work of product development through this firm are able to sell high quality goods and services to their clients and get profitability. Some approaches which create positive impact on operation process are detail as follows:
- Just in time: It is a operation manager responsibility to order raw material when it required so that it save time and other resources of the company. It is a one of most important strategies to manage all inventory at work place.
- Total quality management: TQM strategies help to develop high quality product and services thus enhance customer's satisfaction as well as brand value of the company at market place. For example, M &S has implemented TQM at their work place and provide quality of clothe etc. to their consumer resulted build positive brand image in clients eye.
- Six sigma: Six sigma strategies help production unit to reduce defect from their manufacture product through this they are able to develop or maintain quality of goods. Through this, they save time and resources which should be wast due to produce defective commodities (Neck and Manz, 2010).
- Lean production: It is approach that help company to reduce waste in their manufacturing process of through this they are able to achieve goals with minimum utilisation of available resources.
Role of leaders and manager
- Formulation of policies: Manager and leaders both have play important role at work place. They are develop rule, policies and regulation in order to run whole business activities effectively.
- Planning: It is most important work of manager in which they have plan related to role of staff members, selling strategies, operational work and many other through this M &S has capable to achieve aim in limited time period.
- Decision making: They have take decision for run entire business task effectively and all staff members has follow it to completing their work appropriately.
P5 Importance and value of operations management in achieving business objectives
Operation management is paramount for a working organisation to attain their business objectives as this optimise minimal imputes such as energy, resources, raw material to accomplish the standard outcome carried while planning the resources efficiently which reduce the commodity cost. This is automatically increase the organisational benefits (Pinkerton ed., 2011). M & S utilise this techniques to carry out more quality commodities aiming over the distinct consumer requirement. They have planned the procedure of product cost as well as time with it. Here are discussed few of those key importance of operation management described as below:
- Resources Utilisation: It is one of basic and core organisational part where the company opt numerous limited resources as this carries out certain product with specific period of time. If a company disable in managing tier activities, this can direct toward numerous problems such as cost increment, consumer dissatisfaction and delay in the schedule etc.(Leadership Theories, 2017). Henceforth, this can be claimed that resource can be opted through managing operation management in more significant manner.
- Reduction of the Wastage: The reduction procedure which include the material which can be utilise to manufacture their produced production of cost which can aid the environment protection as well. Reusing and recycling of distinct resources and through opting the lean management procedure within Marks and Spencer, company can achieve their objectives and significant outcomes efficiently.
- Profit maximization: Operation management can refer to the short or long term produce which is often pulled to output and product cost that present the maximum revenues and benefits amount of company (Hammill and Tanner, 2011). It can distinguished into numerous parts i.e. variable and fixed cost. The fixed cost is set according to the short term objectives whereas variable is managed for the long term goals.
P6 Factor of business environment which create influence upon decision-making by managers and leaders
In an company, operation manager use resources in an proper way to meet objectives and targets within a limited period of time. Their are some of main factors of business environment are given below:
(Sources: Business environment, 2016)
Factors of internal environment:
- Plan and policies: Management of company is developing a policies as well as plan to operate enterprise functions properly. By implementing various plans and policies within business functions is help in proper working of business activities.
- Human resource: Department of human resource hire a skilled as well as talented workers for organisation which decline the cost of training. Marks and Spencer are using various techniques in their working environment as well as free form of training sessions price. Employees is having an ability to impact on the management process of decision making (Eyal, P.O.S.T and Haim, Clarizen Ltd., 2014). So, it is an responsibility of human resource manager to include workers at a time of taking companies decisions.
- Financial resource: Manager of finance all liability as well as expensive for getting higher level of profits as compare to rivals of the firms. Operational management is using higher numbers of finance for other divisions which will impact on the process of decision-making. Therefore, management control as well as manage all activities of finance within a working environment.
- Companies image: Marks and Spencer manufacturer quality of services as well as product which help in improving their image within the minds of customers in an positive manner as well as entire market.
- Plant and machinery: Manager of operational have to keep their machinery as well as plants for declining the cost of maintenance (DeAnna and et. al., 2010). Hence, it will aid in improving overall profitability as well as productivity of the organisation.
- Employee's relationship management: It is an responsibility of management to maintain a strong relations in an positive way within the employees. By these functions of organisation will aid in declining disputes.
Factors of external environment:
- Economic: Nation economic situation is affected directly in the process of management decision making. Therefore, it is very essential for an company to examine their situations of economical as well as their influence on operational functions.
- Technological: Advanced technology give competitive advantage to organisation within a working environment. Marks and Spencer are adopting a latest strategies within their working environment as well as manufacture innovative and quality of their buyers. This will help in raising their overall profitability and market share.
- Political: In United Kingdom, government is not stable so that modifications are done on limited span of time which gave a negative influence on management decisions. Policies of trade is a classical e.g. of Marks and Spencer buy petrol from other nations as well as follow all rule and regulation of trade (Bahmani-Firouzi and Azizipanah-Abarghooee, 2014). When government modify their rule along with that they create some barriers then the organisation will affect on plan as well as decision.
- Cultural: It is impacted on customers behaviour of buying decisions. It is an responsibility of an management to examine culture as well as manufacture a services and goods accordingly.
- The customers: In present times, buyers require to changed very rapidly so that organisation can produce goods accordingly within a marketplace for achieving customer needs.
- The competitors: Rivals are also impact on decisions of organisations management.
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From the above report it is concluded that operational management is a key brand of organisation through this firm produce high quality product and services thus help to rise customer's satisfaction as well as market position as compare to their competitors in long run. They take a proper decision which are better for organisation. Internal and external environment of business will create a influence on the process of management decision making.