Adult nursing can be determined challenging and rewarding job in which one gets the opportunity to make changes in the life of people. It provides the opportunity to learn with practical procedures and experience that also benefits the patient. There are different set of cases that are faced by people and these situations are handled as per the type of experience which care providers have. In other words, it is a type of area in which people who are above the age of 18 years are taken into consideration. More specifically, it includes physical illness or any kind of disabilities (Coleman, Sumbi and Luu, 2015). There are various set of considerations that care providers need to consider. In this present report, there are different type of case study examples given in which it covers the issues related to mental capacity. Further, it includes issues related to confidentiality, discriminatory practices in health care and potential abuse and safeguarding. This report covers legal issues that raise as per the given case scenario, considering the relevant legislation. Further, it covers ethical issues which raise in the healthcare organization in accordance with the case. Moreover, it covers professional issues that has caused in the given case (Tait, Williams and Barton, 2015). Lastly, it also includes the importance of the health and social care professional developing effective communication and interpersonal skills.
1. Legal Issues
There are different type of legal considerations that should be undertaken by healthcare practitioners. In this context, there are certain laws which are made by government in order to protect the interest of people. With this respect, it includes laws like Mental Capacity Act 2005, Equality Act 2010, Human Rights Act 1998, etc. (Baillie, 2014). As per the case, below given are the legal issues that has raised:
Confidentiality: as per the current case study, there is an expectation of Sam to make sure the issues that is being faced by him is not been conveyed to any. During the accident, his mother accompanies him to the emergency department in this context, he does not want her mother to get involved in the health condition which he is going through. Confidentiality can be determined as the major aspect, that has to be considered by care practitioners. All the information that has been conveyed by patient should not be shared with anyone until the patient is will. With this respect, there are law that also make sure that people get to opportunity to protect the information that is given by patients (Lee, Jeon and Kim, 2016). In this context it includes Confidentiality and Data Protection Act 1998. As per the these laws, it is the responsibility of care providers to make sure that the information that is provided by patients related with their health should be kept safe and it should not be disclosed to anyone until it is allowed by the patient himself/herself. It was in the year 1995 when British Laws enforced Data protection directive in which it is mentioned that informations should not be shared to unauthorised person. In addition to this, there are about 8 principles that are involved in protection act in which all mainly focus on keeping the data processed lawfully (Ellis, 2016).
Mental Capacity Act: In accordance with the case, there are mental issues that are faced by Sam. That occurred when he was of 10 years, the moment when he fell off from his bicycle. In this context, there is law that make sure that the treatment which has to be provided should be taken by patient themselves. This is a type of laws that determines that develop confidence. There are cases in which people do not be favourable towards the type of services of treatment that they provide (Winstein, Harvey and Lang, 2016). With this respect, when option is provided to care takers, then it enables to develop confidence among the mind of patients. In the case, Sam is not in the condition to make decision over the type of treatment that which he should be given. However, it is important for care practitioner to take permission from in order to select the suitable treatment for the issues that Same is facing. In addition to this, there is an issue of depression because of the incident that occurred when he was 10 years old. So as a result it is important that care providers share the information with his parents as they play role as a guardian. Mental Capacity Act 2005 can be determined as a framework that act for decision making by the others if the patient is not in the condition of metal state to provide his suggestion or decision (Richardson, Kelsey and Doman, 2015). In case, the patient so not have any type of mental issues, then it is the responsibility of care provider to get suggestion from patient for the type of treatment that should be given even if the patient is not capable or can not take unwise decisions.
Equality And Discrimination Act: Issue of discrimination arise when people do not treat each one equally. Further, discrimination are of different type and it is important that at all types care practitioners should not make discrimination and all patients should be treated equally. There are many types of challenges and problems that are faced in health care dimension (Kim, Chung and Kim, 2013). There should be equal importance provided to all patients even if they are from any background, age group, religion, race, etc. In accordance with the case of Sam, care providers should make sure that prominent services is delivered. In the case, Sam is type of person who does not prefer to talk much and does not get involved in anyone. Rather, he prefers to stay alone and is happy to be alone. In this context, because of this characteristic Sam should not be ignored. There are certain mental and psychological issues and do not have proper interaction. In such situation, it is the responsibility of care practitioner to make sure that he is not being discriminated and similar treatment is provided when compared with others (Winstein, Harvey and Lang, 2016). With change in time, there are number of changes that are taken place in the Equality act and it has covered all the aspect in which people are generally discriminated. This law is helpful to make sure that proper services are provided by practitioners are they are not being discriminated any way.
Among all these laws, it is important that care providers make sure that all the condition of Sam is properly analysed and they are being provided with proper treatment. Generally patients are the one who make decision over the type of treatment that should be provided to them but in this case, Sam do not have the mental capability to make his own decision (Rich, Shen and Tirschwell, 2016). In this context, it is important that the decision is made by mother as a guardian but it important that interest level of patient is taken into consideration.
2. Exploring Ethical Issues
Ethics in medical area can be determined as a system that is related to moral principles which can be applied to judgement and values of medical practices. Further, there are different type of principles which has to be considered that are helpful to make sure that proper services are provided to patients. In this context, it includes principles like beneficence, justice, dignity and non-maleficence (Macdonald, Jones and Leslie, 2016). In accordance with the case, below given are the ethical principles:
Autonomy: It is a type of principle that views towards the right of person to self-determination. In order to get better result in health care professional, autonomy has become very important. In this context, there are various type of diseases which can be attributed for the loss of autonomy. In order words, it can be determined as the freedom which is given to patient in order to get the type of services, meditations, care provider who should handle the case. More specifically, if the patient is not comfortable getting treatment from specific care provider, then they have to right to change and get treatment from other. In accordance with the case, Sam should be provided with the opportunity to make his own decision for the treatment that has to be provided. Sam has learning disabilities and depression because of which mother has provided with the opportunity to make decisions. Moreover, individuals who are below the age of 18 do not have the opportunity to make decision (Oh, Jeon and Koh, 2015). The condition in which patient is below 18 years and conditions in which he/she is not in the condition to make decision, then in such situation anyone from patients family can take decision for the treatment that has to be provided.
Beneficence: In accordance with this principle, it is essential that proper benefit is provided by healthcare provider. In order words, it can be determined as an action, which is taken for the benefit of others. As per the case, the decision that has to be taken by Sam was taken by his mother (Heaslip, Latchford and Borwell, 2016). This was done in order to reduce the risk that may have caused if the decision was taken by Sam himself. In this context, it is the responsibility of care provider to consider all the factors that falls negatively towards the health conditions of Sam or any other patients. Then appropriate steps should be taken so that they will be able to reduce the risk factors and benefit could be provided (Kang, Kim and Shin, 2016). Further, as per the examination that has been conducted, it has been analysed that there was serious issue occurred when Sam was 10 years old. This is another beneficiary factor that has been identified with the help of which actual issue that has been faced by Sam was identified.
Non-Maleficence: In accordance with this principle, it includes various obligations that make sure that there is no harm made to any person. It is the responsibility of care providers that all the patients are provided with proper care and adequate treatment is delivered. With this respect, it includes no abuse, violence or harm. There should be proper monitoring of services that are provided by care practitioners to patients (Coleman, Sumbi and Luu, 2015). In order to reduce harm, it is the responsibility of management to make sure that all the type of tools and equipments are provided. Moreover, professionals should be given training so that they will be able to understand the needs and requirement of patients. Accordingly, services and treatments should be provided so that patient could over come their issues or problems. Further, all the activities that can cause any type of harm to patient should be stopped and proper steps should be taken so that there no harm occurred to them. In addition to this, healthy environment should be provided in which patient develop trust and confidence over the treatments that are provided to them (Tait, Williams and Barton, 2015).
Justice: All the things that a patient deserve and own should be provided to them. All the patients who visit to the healthcare organization should be treated equally, impartially and fairly. With this respect, it is essential that care providers combine justice and beneficence so that unfair treatment can be reduced. All the burden that care providers have should be divided equally and the benefits that they get should also be segregated. In accordance with the case, justice need to be given to Sam and appropriate action should be taken so that issues can be solved. Trust and confidence should be developed among the mind of care taker so that they will be able to develop a feeling that the issue will be solved (Baillie, 2014). Both moral and ethical values should be considered in healthcare so that there is no harm faced by patients. When proper case is not taken, then the issue for which patient was admitted will not be solved and more serious issues can arise because of which the issue or problem may become serious.
3. Explore The Professional Issues Raised By The Scenario
Within the healthcare organization it is essential for the practitioners to maintain the professional relationship among their staff through adhering different standard of codes. With the help of this they can easily maintain the professionalism and overcome the issues. For instance, according to the imposed code of Nursing and Midwifery it has been stated that attendant or nurse who is attending the patient need to respect the dignity and self respect of the individual so that they may not engage in arising the professional issues (Holloway and Wheeler, 2013). Through considering the above case scenario Sam got injured and was immediately attended by the nurse within the emergency department therefore, it might results in raising the professional issues related with maintaining the dignity or self respect. The nurse who was attending Sam was not engaged in the professional activities and disrespect Sam mother within the emergency department by not allowing her to see his son. Therefore, it is required by nurses to engage in professional conduct that need to be followed by the nurses as well as midwives while rendering care services (Hockenberry and Wilson, 2014).
On the other hand, another professional issue that is raised within the HSC organization include maintaining privacy and confidentiality. Nurses while serving the patient are duty-bound to maintain privacy of them from the third individual or other practitioners that are not involved in their care. In the scenario when nurses are unable to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of Sam then it may results in impacting the mindset of the individual (Segar, Rogers and Thomas, 2013). Accordant with the case scenario Sam mother has not disclosed to nurse that he had serious injury while he was riding bicycle that results in causing serious injury and causing depression among Sam. Therefore, in this situation professional issue related with maintaining confidentiality and privacy arises (Gerrish, Naisby and Ismail, 2013).
In addition to this, according to the scenario nurse is not allowing Sam mother in accompanying them then in this situation it results in attaining the issue of confidentiality. Sam mother has knowledge regarding the issues that are faced by Sam and he is not comfortable with the nurses therefore this will cause them upset and distress in the situation (Lovatt, Nanton and Munday, 2015). Along with this, nurses would also treat the patient in an improper way so that they may not take advantage of their problem that is related with the learning disabilities. Moreover, the case scenario also states that with the learning disability Sam was unable to be comfortable with other individual therefore, his mother accompanied him all the way. To whom he shares all the knowledge and problem regarding the requirement and need on the basis of which treatment is provided to them (Cameron, Lart and Coomber, 2014). Therefore, nurses are aware regarding the fact and disallowed her mother to see his son who got injured during the football match. From the stated code of conduct of nurses it has been stated that nurses are required to listen the individual and respond according the patient. But in the case scenario, nurses within the HSC is not allowing Sam mother to accompany therefore, in this situation the issue related with confidentiality arises (Holloway and Wheeler, 2013). Through this professional issue nurse is unable to provide required services and care treatment to Sam as with his problem that is learning disability he is unable to tell them the problem and issue he is facing. Along with this, he is also unable to communicate regarding the injury that he suffers while playing football match. Therefore, to overcome this nurses are required to encourage the involvement of her mother who is accompanying so that they may deliver the required treatment and services (Hockenberry and Wilson, 2014).
In addition to this, through considering the case scenario of Sam nurses within the HSC organization may also explore the professional issue related with accuracy. It is been required that nurses may take proper precaution as well as direction so that they may easily attend the patient and provide them adequate medication (Segar, Rogers and Thomas, 2013). From the stated code of standard of nurses and midwives it is stated that nurses while treating the Sam must cross check the doses and medication that they are providing to patient so that it may not contradict or side effect the health of patient. Therefore, it is stated that it is required to ensure the accuracy so that misinterpretation related with the information or medication can be easily overcome (Gerrish, Naisby and Ismail, 2013). In addition to this, Sam also have learning disability that might affect in transmitting and exchanging the accurate information regarding the problem or issue that he is facing. Along with this, through considering the case scenario after the serious injury in the childhood it was found that Sam attained the learning disabilities that directly impact their decision making activities. As result of this he fails to grab the learning quickly as compare to other individual. In this case while treating the Sam nurse must take care of this aspect that he has learning disabilities (Lovatt, Nanton and Munday, 2015). Therefore, nurse in this scenario ensure improper relationship that act as the professional issues within the organisation. Along with this, without maintaining the relationship within the healthcare it may results in arising the conflicting situation among patient and staff that even cause the breakdown of communication that hinder the performance of the care practitioners while providing care to service users (Cameron, Lart and Coomber, 2014).
Some other professional issue that is faced by the nurses and midwives within the care setting include related with maintaining proper professional boundaries. It is required by the nurses to keep professionalism by not taking financial reward or wages from the patient or their family members. Along with this taking gift from the individual may also stated as the wrong activity that leads to exceed the professional boundaries (The Code Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwives. 2015).
4. Importance of the Health and Social Care Professional Developing Effective Communication and Interpersonal Skills
It is important to have proper communication among patients and care providers in order to solve the issues that has been identified (Coleman, Sumbi and Luu, 2015). Communication can be determined as the key aspect in which enables to develop a healthy environment in which patients and care providers can perform their roles and responsibilities effectively and efficiently. It is helpful to transfer proper information to others. There are many negative impact in case information is not conveyed properly. It is important for patients to have communication skills as it helps in provide or convey information in an effective manner. Moreover, it is essential that nurses have proper knowledge of different languages as there are situations in which people who may not be able to understand one common language. For a nurse with communication skills, it is also essential that they also possess interpersonal skills so that they will be able to develop strong relationship with their patients (Tait, Williams and Barton, 2015). This is beneficial for them to understand the issues that has been faced by them and to provide them treatment accordingly. Nurses need to have communication skills so that they will be able to communicate the meditations and the current condition of patient.
In the current case, Sam is facing different type of issues so it is important that nurses have proper communication so that they will be able to identify other related issues that Sam has. This is done in order to develop trust and confidence within the mind of patient (Richardson, Kelsey and Doman, 2015). Further, it is also important that they have verbal and non-verbal skills so that they will be able to covey the seriousness and negative impact that the patient face. With this respect, it is also recommended that nurses are provided with training in order to develop their understanding towards facial expression towards the patient who are old or have problem to hearing. When there is proper interaction, then the issue of depression can be solved. The level of interaction that Sam has with other can be raised (Kim, Chung and Kim, 2013). Nurses should have the knowledge of verbal languages so that adequate information can be provided to patients. Apart from all these, it is essential that nurses have the skill of listening. In order to have effective communication, it requires one to listen to the conversation and reply accordingly. When there is listening skill, then it enables to develop an effective relationship with subordinates. When there is proper communication among subordinates, then it becomes easy to deliver adequate services to patients. It is the responsibility of nurses to make Sam comfortable (Winstein, Harvey and Lang, 2016). This is an effective way through which Sam will be able to identify the psychological and physical problems that are faced by Sam.
There are different set of models which are helpful to raise communication level. With this respect, it includes Roger's Core Conditions Model. As per this model, different people have diverse set of characteristics and every one know oneself better than anyone else (Person Centered Therapy, 2014.). When a person has their target, then in order to reach them, there are psychological changes. In this context, there are three elements which are included in this and they are as follows:
Empathy: As per this element, it is important that nurse develop empathic understanding and these conditions are also called frames (Lee, Jeon and Kim, 2016). In order words, it is essential that the condition and situation of Sam should be understood in a compassionate manner. In order to understand the situation and condition of Sam, nurses should be able to see is in the perspective of patient. Proper information should be collected so that doctor will be able to understand the situation and proper services or treatments can be provided.
Congruence: In accordance with this element, it is important that nurses are genuine and authentic to their patients. When nurses have effective communication, then they will be able to develop trust and confidence among mind of patients (Macdonald, Jones and Leslie, 2016). In the present case, Sam need to have proper interaction so that the mental condition of Sam can be analysed. In the case, there was disrespect shown to his mother which is unethical. It is important for the nurse to make sure that they provide healthy environment in which they will be able to work and perform their set of roles and responsibilities.
Unconditional positive regard: There should be proper care shown to Sam or any other patient. It also includes his mother who was not allowed to get in while Sam was operated. Patients should not be judged or evaluated on the basis of their issues or problems (Heaslip, Latchford and Borwell, 2016). In other words, every one should be treated equally and proper services should be provided. Patients should be excepted as they are and they should not be judged according to their behavioural aspect.
As per the above given case study research, it can be stated that as a nurse, there are different type of areas which has enlightened. There are different set of job roles that has to be done in order to make sure patients are provided with proper care and services. I got to realize about ethical, moral and legal values that a nurse should consider when they deliver their services. There are diverse set of skills that a nurse should have among which I got to identify that listening and communication are the most important as it enables to know the patient more closely and also enables to help them to over come the problems. Moreover, professional regulations need to be followed so that care takers get proper treatment. Nurses should be professional and they require to maintain their quality of services. In order to over come the issue of Sam, it is essential that prominent relationship is developed so as to overcome depression and other issues.
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