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Importance of Information System

Introduction to Database and Security Threats

In today’s globalized world most of the organizations nowadays are adopting different database techniques in order to store and maintain their most important data. Database contains overall information about the company’s employees as well as their customers and financial status. It is the best way through which management team can get any type of information at any time of requirements. One of the most crucial tasks for company is to maintain security level of their database as there is a huge scope of data loss (Godbole, 2008). Within this increasing need of organizations to collect and store their data, database management has become a key component of business efficiency. The present report is highly concern about the data security as well as data efficiency. It defines that how organizations are dealing with different security threats within their database. Further, it also provides appropriate information related to the benefits that organization can attain from good security and efficiency. There are various methods that can be used by company in order to secure their database system (Ahmad, 2002). Moreover, this study gives deep insight about the best practice in dealing with security and efficiency issues.

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Findings And Analysis

2.1 Databases

The security and privacy of database are the most important assets of any organizations. In today’s globalized and competitive era it is becoming most crucial tasks for companies to maintaining essential security for their private as well as personal data.

2.1.1 Efficiency

One of the important tasks for organizations is to maintain the efficiency of their database. There are varied ranges of IT solutions for creating simple databases in order to address some of the most common company needs (Mcleod, 2008). There are various ways through which companies can make their database more efficient. In this, they require to maintain effective security systems so that faster speed of the system can be attained. It provides efficient output in a more effective way. With the help of securing their database companies can easily keep their whole information secure and maintain their database privacy. Sensitive information can be exposed when transmitted over non secured channel.

2.2 Security

Database security is a major concern which uses a broad range of information security controls in order to protect their database. Database security basically requires storing data that prevent unauthorized people from accessing it (Rob and Coronel, 2007). Data encryption is another most effective and common technique to prevent accidental or intentional destruction. In order to keeping their data secure it is essential for companies to understand applicable threats and continual monitoring of varied activities. At the time of transmission of data it is necessary to compliance with some standards and regulations.

Security threats in database

Nowadays most of the organizations are try to adopt various strategies through which they can protect their database from different types of security issues as well as threats. Some of the most common security threats are as follows:

Input Injection: It is also known as SQL injection that mainly targets traditional database systems. These types of attack basically occur by inserting or injecting malicious statements into the input field of web applications. It is define as an input injections as well as SQL injections (Bruce and Ho, 2009). In addition to this, NoSQL Injections basically targets the Big Data Platforms. It inserts malicious statements into Big Data components. Both of these injections are considered as a major security threat under which attacker unrestricted database access to an entire database.

SQl injection

Malware: It is another most common type of security threat which covers different entities such as spear phishing mails (Maier, 2007). It is covered under a cybercrime in which unaware malware can infect the whole device. Due to this, users can easily access their network as well as appropriate and sensitive data. In addition to this, it is a type of computer viruses that is used by attackers to disrupt the computer operations.

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Denial of service: It comes under the general attack category in which overall data is denied to intended users. Such type of conditions can created via many techniques such as overload server resources such as memory and CPU. The main motivation behind DOS attack is often linked to the extortion scams in which remote server will repeatedly crash various servers (Dhillon, 2007). These servers will be crashed up to the end level when victims meet their demands. Further, it is considered as a serious threat for many organizations and they need to attain various security measures. With the help of these measures companies can easily maintain the security services within their firm.

Excessive and unused privileges: At the time of granting varied range of database privileges that exceed their job functions requirements, then these privileges can be abused. Further, it can be stated that there are various employees who take an advantage excessive database privileges and increase the security threats for their colleagues (Li, Moselhi and Alkass, 2006). In case, someone change their role within the organization often his/her access rights to sensitive data do not change. At such timings some users might use their old privileges in order to steal high value data. It is consider as a major security threat and organizations need to destroy the previous employee’s entity in order to make their data safe and secure.

Privilege abuse: There are various ways through which users may abuse legitimate database privileges for unauthorized purpose. It can be describes with the help of an example that in any healthcare organization a healthcare application is used to store and maintain the database records of individuals (Dhillon, 2007). Within this type of applications users are limits to view only their individual data or patient’s record. In this, viewing multiple patients’ records as well as electronics copies is not allowed. Under this conditions if user is able to connect that database by the way of using any alternative way such as Ms-Excel etc. At this time user can easily retrieve and save all patient records to their laptop. Once this connection has been made and user reaches to the other consumer’s data and record, the data becomes susceptible to a wide variety of possible breach scenario.

In addition to this, there are several most common security threats for database such as: Hacking is the most common threats for computer users. It can be define as an unauthorized access to computer system (Lee and et.al, 2003). Hackers can hack any type of personal as well as private information. Hackers have developed sophisticated methods in order to obtain data from database. They can send varied range of e-mails in which user need to login their account. In case of such types of login user might leads to lose their private login details and information. However, it is considered as a most common way of hacking any type of information (Kovacich, 2013). On the other, computer viruses are another universal method or a computer program which creates several security threats within the database. These types of viruses can replicate themselves and hide inside other computer files. This is the major threat through which sensitive information of company can be corrupted.

Different methods used for improvement and security of data

One of the most essential tasks for any organization nowadays is to improve their database security measures. It is the best way through which they are able to enhance loyalty among customers as well as employees. With the help of adopting best security methods companies can easily keep their consumers as well as employees data more safe and secure. Data is a most valuable asset for any organization (Gaiti, 2002). Keeping it safe and secure is another most challenging task for any organization. For this, there are various methods to improving the security of data such as:

Access controls: With the help of defining access control rights companies can make sure that all their communication takes place within the database as per the set policies and controls. It highly makes sure that no interference occurs by any attacker internally as well as externally. It is the best method for improving the security of data as it helps in minimizing the risks. For example: In case of deletion of any important table the results can be roll backed for certain files (Jaikumar, 2004). Within this, access controls can restrict such deletion and keep such tables and data safe.

Inference policy: It helps in protecting the data at a certain level. Interpretations from certain data need to be protected at a higher security level. With the help of this method company can easily asses that how they can protect the information from being disclosed. It is the best way through which whole companies can keep their information more secure.

Encryption: This is another most effective method of security which helps in identifying different type of security threats which may occur. Encryption is technique in which user can transform all the information by means of cipher or a code (Gaiti, 2002). In this recent time period, a new framework was proposed. Under this, different keys are used by various parties in order to keep their data secure. With the help of generating cipher text developer or user make it unreadable for everyone. This type of encrypted information can be decrypted at the end of those users who are holding a key to that information. Moreover, it can be stated that the overall encoded information is known as encrypted information (Katerina and et.al, 2009). There are various government, private as well as no-government organizations and all of them are keeping sensitive data on their web servers. It is the most crucial tasks for these companies to keep their data and information protected from attacker. Further, it is the best protection technique but it requires appropriate implementation decisions.


User identification/ authentication: This technique is used by most of the organizations nowadays for their security purpose. Under this technique, only some users are allowed to access data. Developer or an organization can restrict outsiders to login some of their confidential or personal information (Shingo and Chong, 2007). In such a way there are only few trustworthy people who are allowed to access such kind of information. In order to ensure security, it is necessary for company to keep their data safe from being modified by any ordinary user. Moreover, it is being determine that only authenticate users are allowed to access organization’s personal database. It is the best way to restrict outsiders from any type of misuse that may occur.

Accountability and auditing: In order to ensure the physical integrity of the data companies need to maintain appropriate audit checks as well as accountability. Through this, company can maintain and keep all their records updated and safe. Moreover, it can be stated that it is the most appropriate and common method through which company can analyse the whole information that is held on servers (Godbole, 2008). It also helps in keeping records of all the login details of credentials as well as overall authentication.

All the above given techniques are considered as a most appropriate and effective techniques which can be used by companies in order to keep all their data secure and safe. These are the most common ways through which various security threats can be eliminated and organizations can define their appropriate security policy (Mcleod, 2008). Such type of policies within the organization must be strictly enforced so that it is appropriately used by all the employees.

2.2.1 Data Access

It is a user’s ability to access and retrieved the data stores within a database. There are basically two fundamental data access i.e. sequential access and random access. Further, it covers all the process of storing, retrieving information from the database. At this time, it is quite essential to maintain security within the system. There are several benefits for all those organization that are using effective security systems for their database and information. There is an immense need for business to ensure the maintenance of database with full efficiency (Courtney and et.al, 2010). With the help of sound database security system companies can decrease in employee theft. Sometimes most of the employees get engage into various fraudulent activities such as leaking of business information. It is the major threat for companies and it can be easily reduced by the way of adapting effective database security system. In addition to this, another major benefit is using such type of system is the enhancement of brand image. With the help of keeping their entire consumer’s information safe company can easily develop their positive brand image in the mindset of customers (Becker, Greve and Albers, 2009). It helps them in gaining consumer loyalty as well as enhancing their market share in an effective manner. Further, it also ensures the confidentiality of customer’s information and easily enhances their satisfaction level towards company can as well as their products and services. In this way, it can be define that organizations can prevent any type of unauthorized entry and maintain their consumer as well as employee trust by keeping their information safe and secure. Moreover, by establishing sound security system companies can adopt several benefits and provide safe and reliable data as well as information to their customers (Pokorny and et.al, 2011).

Possible future developments security and efficiency improvements

Due to the increasing technological development there are various possible future advancements through which companies can keep their data protected. For improving their security system companies can use various stored procedures in future. Under this type of mechanism developer need to store their SQL code on the server. With the help of these saved queries applicants can make its use with the stored procedures. All the range of actions which needs to be performing must be restricted or developers can keep it limited. Another most appropriate recommendation or possible development for future is related to the advancement of security as well as tracking system. By using this system companies can get and auto generated e-mail at the time of any type of unauthentic activity. It can easily restrict the unauthentic activities (Li, Moselhi and Alkass, 2006). It is considered as a most effective development as well as technique under which users can get an e-mail at the time of any malware found within their system. With the help of this, they can get same time access and find out the malware. It is also a solution or a protected activity which helps in keeping all their consumers information secure. In addition to this, by providing least privileges also companies can maintain security among their system. There are number of users which can be restricted to use the services without granting permission. A tracker system can be kept on the basis of which unprivileged users can get restricted. Further, there is a most effective way through which companies can further keep their data secure and safe in the future. For this, developers of the database must not have administrative powers over users (Dhillon, 2007). It can be define that company need not to provide full power of changing passwords or updating information within the hands of customers. There are several measures which companies need to take in future at the time of implementation and appropriate system development.


From the above study it has been articulated that within this technological advanced world it is becoming most difficult for companies to maintaining their security system. There are various security threats such hackers, malware, DoS, privileges abuse, unauthentic access etc. in order to overcome with these security threats organizations needs to maintain appropriate database security system by keeping effective accountability and auditing, access controls, encryption etc. With the help of maintaining appropriate security in their database systems companies can enhance their positive brand image as well as gain customer loyalty.


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  • Dhillon, G., 2007. Principles of information systems security: text and cases. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Gaiti, D., 2002. Network Control and Engineering for QoS, Security and Mobility. Springer Science & Business Secure Network Provenance. University of Pennsylvania and Georgetown University.
  • Jaikumar, V., 2004. Cisco Continues Security Push. Computerworld . 38(11). pp.11-12.
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  • Kovacich, L. G., 2013. The Information Systems Security Officer's Guide: Establishing and Managing an Information Protection Program. Springer.
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