Organisational behaviour is considered as the application and study of information about the way people react and interact within an organisation. This is executed widely to the individual behaviour in all sort of company. Evaluation of organisation behaviour assists in management of employee and maximise the team and individual work outcome. 4Com is undertaken in this report as it is small telecommunication service provider founded in 1998 in UK that deals with businesses and user both (Wood and et. al, 2012). The services and products of company include digital handsets, telephony integration, call reporting and management, phone system, broadband services etc. Under this report, influence of power, culture and politics on team and individual’s performance and behaviour will be studied. This will assess how to stimulate teams and individuals to accomplish the goals within 4Com. This assignment will also apply several distinct philosophies and models of organisational behaviour to understand the basic aspects of this.
P1 How an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance
A company is highly influenced by its power, politics and culture as these shapes the behaviour, operations and practices operated by organisation. The effective administration of personnel is acknowledged as crucial determinants in creating sustainable competitive edge within 4Com. These factors include culture, politics and power that impact on the behaviours in numerous ways which is mentioned as below:
Impact on Organisational Culture
A culture shapes the innovation, products, structure and operations of organisation in numerous manners (Robbins and et. al., 2013). Culture impact on individual and organisation is direct manner if an employee has different culture that impact on business and an individual. In order to understand the culture’s influence, Handy’s typology is an effective method that can be optimised which is elaborated below:
Handy’s Typology: Charles Handy defined culture in four distinct kinds i.e. role, person, power and task.
- Power Culture: Under this, few essential individuals of organisation held company’s power that has influence on firm. If 4Com apply this culture then their employees is being judged on the basis of achievement. Hence, this creates quick decision making of organisation even though the judgement is not beneficial for organisation for its longer interest.
- Role Culture: Under this, culture relies on rules and is controlled by each and every individual who understand the duties. If 4Com comply this, role culture is determined via an individual’s role and responsibility in the structure of organisation. In context of this, the decision making of organisation will be slower in this culture as risk is tried to be reduced at its best in this.
- Person Culture: Under this, Business manager treat employees as an essential and main assets of the company(Schnurr and Chan, 2011). Such companies exist for some people to work. In this type of culture, individual happen to perform in the same organisation in order to achieve same purpose.
- Task Culture: This culture is develop for which teams are constructed to specifically aiming at certain projects and problems. This is an essential elements that extent the power of team on the basis of problem statement and team members. Effectiveness of task culture is determined through team dynamics which can be followed by 4Com in order to meet creative outcome.
4Com follow the task culture procedure as the organisation is able to achieve its business objectives within the limited period of time. This culture have great influence on the team working of company as this mainly concentrate on the completion of task within determined period of time. On the other hand, individuals become more efficient in the company due to the task-orientated behaviour but this sometimes restrain the innovation and creative methods of working. Although, 4Com has been benefited from task culture as this promote more productivity and profit to company.
IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL POWER
Power influences functioning of organisation entirely by impacting on individual and team working of a company. As 4Com follow the task culture, the power of teams and organisation is held by their leaders who are accountable for managing their work within the limited resources. Having a combination of less powerful and powerful people in a group, or having entirely composed powerful team, both can create negative impact on the performance. It is inevitable that more powerful people are less effective in performing the task and but are needed for better work performance. 4Com acquire their power in expertise form and comply hierarchical power in which leader operates and runs the authority which guides individuals of organisation. Hence, power may lead to better performance and productivity and 4Com always ensure whether the power is being optimised in good way.
IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL POLITICS
Workplace politics can be referring to the behaviour and process in individual interaction including authority as well as power. This is the utilisation of social networking and power within 4Com to meet the required changes which benefit firm or individuals within it. Politics exists in most companies that can refer to an asset for strategic execution or useful and natural tools required to change activities (Dobrow, 2013). Politics is a complex word which is portrayed negatively most of the time so in 4Com. The company is a telecommunication organisation which basically focuses on work accomplishment that reduces the amount of politics from workplace. Though, politics usually decrease the overall organisational productivity, influence focus of work, there is numerous positive influences of politics as well within 4Com. Rules and regulations of different countries are directly impact on business operations and activities.
Therefore, this can be state from the discussed report that 4Com culture, politics as well as power not only shapes their operations but also influence their outcome given by individuals and teams of company.
P2 How content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques
Motivation simply means the force which stay employees to work within the organization. Motivation stimulates the person’s energy in order to attain the pre-set goal. This is the basic physiological procedure that is elaborated into two parts which are content and process theory. There are so many motivational theories which could be used by the organization for stimulating the employees in order to get the competitive advantages. Now, this can be rightly said that the management of the 4COM could use content and process theory so that the management could motivate their employees. In order to motivate the employees of 4com, it could use following mentioned theories:
It helps how needs of the employees could be satisfied in order to promote motivation among the employees. This elaborates the internal needs of employees which are required to be satisfied. Alderfer’s ERG theory, Maslow’s need hierarchy, Herzberg’s two factory theory etc.
Maslow’s hierarchical needs theory is refer as an important and essential theory which is used by company in order to motivate their employees. It is defined in the hierarchical theory would concentrates on what, while on the other hand, process theories concentrates on How human behaviour of employees motivated (del Mar Alonso-Almeida and Rodríguez-Antón, 2011). Content theory is assumed to be the greatest one which was founded earlier. By using this theory, management would optimise the work environment and stimulate employees to attain the per-set targets.
Figure 1: Maslow's motivation need theory
Source 1: Maslow's motivation need theory, 2018
This theory is also known as the needs theories. By using this, management would get to know employees needs and react accordingly. This theory is often demonstrated in the pyramid shape in which basic requirements of individual is presented in hierarchy form mentioned as below:
- Physiological Needs: This consist core basic requirements of human in order to survive such as food, water and air. The theory emphasise its focused on these needs of human as functioning of person cannot be done if these are not been fulfilled. It includes water, food, shelter, sleep etc.
- Security and Safety: Better well-being, a place to live and proper source of incomes comes under this theory which are comparatively well contended, fresh requirements will appear after the fulfilment of initial requirements of individuals.
- Love and Belongingness: If both safety and physiological requirements are attained, love, belongingness and love come in the prominence (Coccia, 2014). Depending on the pressure as well power of peer, this need may overbear both security and physiological needs.
- Esteem: It refer to respect for an individual as an honourable, usefulness of human being. This means being respected, valued and appreciated by other. Maslow has divided this as higher and lower version which is most stable.
- Self-Actualisation: This can be defined as desire to develop and grow to her or his fullest potential. After reaching whole other requirements, this needed to be achieved by an individual as it is also one of the fundamental needs.
This eliminate the needs in three steps i.e. relatedness, growth and existence. The need of safety and physiological requirements belong together to existence requirements. Both Alderfer and Maslow tried to explain how the need stages become less and more essential to people.
- Existence needs: It consist of need o common necessities of human which include physical and physiological requirements.
- Relatedness Needs: This is significant relationships, belongingness ad love, one strive for reaching recognition and public fame.
- Growth Need: Need of individual growth, advancement and self-development form together frame this which involves self-actualisation need of Maslow and internal determinants of esteem needs.
Hence, this can state that 4Com can employ Maslow’s need theory for improving the performance of worker and reaching to their basic needs to retain, sustain and manage their worker relation as this categorise requirements as per justified time. This tend to provide idea of worker requirements more coherently and aid in reaching to the proper motivation level of work which is why 4Com is known for better innovation and work.
Process theory is basically concerned with how the stimulation incurs and what process is being utilised by organisation or individual to influence one’s motivation. This theory comprises numerous motivation models and theories such as Skinner’s reinforcement theory, Equity theory of Adam, expectancy theory of Victor Vroom and many more (Suppiah and Singh Sandhu, 2011).
In order to apply this theory, 4Com need to understand its basics. Here are briefly elaborated few of these:
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
This theory stress on the procedure and content of inspiration which integrates the reinforcement theories, equity and needs concepts as well. This focus on discussing how individual chooses from the provided acts. It is refer to a procedure that governs section among forms of alternatives of voluntary attitude. There eliminate the appraising determinants into three segments which are mentioned as below:
- Expectancy: An individual’s belief that more activities will lead to more success.
- Instrumentality: The belief of individual that there is a link between goal and activity. Reward is provided as per the performance.
- Valence: This refers to degree to which an individual render importance to reward, the outcome of success.
As per this theory, all these determinants are multiplied together in order to set the motivation. Hence, if any of these factors is zero the level of motivation will remain nil.
Skinner’s Reinforcement theory:
This concept is based on operant conditioning concept of Skinner which state that behaviour can be shaped through its situation and different consequences. This categorise the behaviour into two forms according which the motivation precede among individuals i.e.:
- Positive Reinforcement: Such as appreciation, praise, trophy, promotion, good mark and several rewards can enhance the repetition possibility of behaviour which was reward.
- Negative Reinforcement: Under this, it is considered that some rewards impact negatively over an individual. In this, punishment can be not desired reinforcement.
As per this theory, positive reinforcement is considered as one of the most efficient motivational methods than punishment. Once specific attitude has been situated by repetitive reinforcement, distinguish of rewards will not stimulate the motivational behaviours of individual which is why this theory is criticised among workplace.
Hence, this can affirm after studying the above notion that 4Com can optimise Vroom’s expectancy theory to stimulate their working activities along with Maslow’s need theory for better procedure. This is also effective in identifying the drawbacks in existing situation of company to remove them and re-moralise the workforce for more efficient working.
Motivational techniques such as job rotation, fair salary, rewards and many other that help an organisation to achieve better results within predetermined time period.
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P3 Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Team can be defined as the number of person that comes together to achieve certain goals and purpose (Adeniji, 2011). There are basically two types of teams which are formed within an organisation; effective team and ineffective team.
- Effective team: Effective team is vitally interactive group of individuals within distinct abilities, backgrounds and skills with a common goal who are performing together to accomplish business objectives.
- Ineffective team: A team is referred as ineffective when they dearth of proper purpose, indifferent toward work and lost their interest in the whole concepts.
Hence, effective team can where direct 4Com toward better outcome, an ineffective team can lead to numerous restraints and waste of resources. Hence, in order to develop a proper team, 4Com can opt Tuckman’s team development theory which can assist organisation in achieving certain business objectives in significant manner.
Effective team help an enterprise to achieve better results. On the other hand, ineffective team create conflict among employees.
Tuckman’s Team Development
This model is one of the most effective team development theory that can assist in formulating an effective team to 4Com. As per this concept, there are certain stages through which a team go through in order to become effective. This is requisite to pass through these steps as this strengthens the bonds among members as well as determines the goals and roles of members as well. Here are discussed these stages of team development mentioned as below:
Forming: Under this stage, most of the members of team re polite and positive. Some members act anxious due to complications in better understanding. Other act generally excited for the work head. In this team, leader play crucial and dominant role as duties and roles of members remain unclear till this stage. This phase does not last long as colleagues begin to know each other more interestingly. This is the initial stage of team development which each unit go through in order to go to next stage.
Storming: Next, basically formed team’s moves to the storming phase where individuals of team start to push the limitation and restriction framed in the forming stage. Most of the ineffective teams fail in this stage due to arise of conflicts and disputes. This phase often begin with complications among number between the different working styles of worker. The distinct behaviour and natural working styles create numerous disputes, frustration among members, unforeseen issues etc. There are numerous other consequences in which storming stages incur such as challenge in clarifying authorities etc. This depends on leader of 4Com and understanding of its worker how they manage unit in unified to move to the next stage of development (Burrell and Morgan, 2017).
Norming: Often, the successful team who corporate with each other’s working style reach to the norming stage. It is the development stage when people begin to come up with resolution of emerged on the grounds of differences, respects their leader and appreciates colleague’s strength. As the team members understand each other, socialise with each other to progress further toward the goal. People of team start to improve better goals and team development to achieve the set target and meet the final outcome in 4Com. There comes often prolonged overlap in the team between the norming and storming stage due to emergence of new task which can lead to either lapse back t the storming behaviour.
Performing: After resolving the issues, the team come to performing stage where team perform together to accomplish the set goals without any obstacles. The process and structure of team support each other as well as the work performed by them. In this phase, member who join and leader doesn’t bother the performance of team.
There is another stage that has no existence in the model currently which is adjourning stage. In this stage, teams are dismissed after the completion of task whether it is temporary or permanent team (in organisation restructuring). 4Com by utilising these stages of team development can create numerous effective teams that can carry out determined outcome within set time period.
P4 Concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour within an organisational context
Organisation behaviour is usually based on a few essential concepts that revolve around the organisation and nature of individual. These aspects are not certain to the OB area. Here are mentioned some fundamental philosophies of behaviour of company discussed as below:
Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour
Individual Differences: Each individual has their own traits and science promote this idea well. Hence, this is employed by 4Com while managing and employing personnel as company prefer more skilled, experienced and talented worker to provide unique services to organisation.
Motivated Behaviour: A worker has numerous requirements within oneself which are needed to be fulfilled (Organizational Behavior – Concepts, 2018). These are hard to perform as in order to improve the work quality, this is essential for 4Com employee to have proper worker skills to keep stimulating worker for the performed task.
Holistic Concept: This philosophy of OB interprets individuals-company relationship related to entire people, group, whole enterprise and social system. This carried board view of organisation people to be considered by many as possible of determinants which impact their behaviour.
There are many other philosophies such as value of the person, interest mutuality, human dignity etc. but holistic approach is utilised by 4Com as this as this does not only promote people working but support firm to expand their business across worldwide.
Path Goal Theory: One of the core theories of organisational behaviour, this theory was developed by Robert House and belongs to the Expectancy theory of motivation. This theory states that 4Com’s leader behaviour highly influence the performance and efforts of employee’s participation expectancies. They are accountable for removing the restraints come in the path of success of worker in order to provide those rewards (Lawrence and Lee, 2013). To meet this, they deliver them proper resource, support, information and other essentials so their success path can be clarified to them. This theory is based on the leadership structure that is complied in company as this state that it is not a power but facilitated accurate guidance to subordinates to emphasise the effectiveness of their work performed by them. 4Com applied this theory to understand the effectiveness of their work leaders as their efficiency is determined on the basis of environmental situational components and numerous workers along with their working manner. Here are illustrated basics of Path Goal Theory:
Figure 2: Path Goal Theory
Source 2: Path Goal Theory, 2018
In order to implement this theory, 4Com need to follow these basic phases which are mentioned as below:
Worker Characteristics: Employee decode 4Com leader’s attitude and behaviour on the grounds of their requirements such as affiliation, degree of structure required by them, control desire, ability perceived level etc. 4Com leader requires to interpret their workers in order to stimulate them for better performance.
Environmental and work Characteristics: This theory aims over overcoming obstacles as if these restrain increase (Du Plessis and Barkhuizen, 2012). 4Com leader is liable for guide them to right path. In this, numerous complex characteristics of task emerge such as:
- Formal Authority System: As per the management, leader delivers clear vision and goal to worker.
- Task Design: It might need the support of leader in the negative and complex consequence emerged in performing task.
- Work Group: Leader needs to perform with enthusiasm if the team given to him/her is non-supportive.
Leader Style: Behaviour of a leader is considered as independent variable in Path Goal theory as this emphasises and determines the worker and task traits in order to excel the stimulation among worker at their target. For this purpose, 4Com leader opt one of these four types of leadership styles i.e. supportive, directive, achievement and participative.
Hence, this theory is appropriate to maintain the working environment is 4Com along with holistic approach as this delivers more work productivity and promote the change in style as per sdifferent consequences (Walsham, 2012). Therefore, this nurtures the organisation experience and prospers the behaviour of worker effectively.
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It can be comprehend from the above report that organisational behaviour is essential to part to manage by an organisation which can assist in better productivity and efficiency. The report summons that different politics, power and culture has vital role in the individual and team behaviour. Motivation is essential for employee of company in order to retain, work and perform more productively for which enterprise can adopt numerous content and process theories. For better work, company need to formulate effective team that can be structured through using Tuckman’s team development theory. These theories comprise Maslow’s motivation theory, ERG theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory etc. This can state that a company need to comply numerous philosophies and organisational behaviour theories such as path goal theory for better functioning of operation in significant manner.