This unit states that research had to be conducted on analyzing factors that are affecting employee absenteeism.
- Give a brief introduction of the topic covering aims & objective
- Carry out Literature review by using sources from books & journal
- Conduct research methodology by using the data analysis tools.
Employee absenteeism has always been an interesting topic and various researches have already been conducted by researchers on this subject. The results of the study may vary from country to country and its consequences can have a direct the indirect impact on the functions of the organization. It can affect statutory sick pay, high expenses to cope up with absenteeism of staff, and lost production of the corporation as well. It can also lead to lowering down the overall satisfaction of the customers as well which can ultimately have a greater impact on the profitability aspects of the company (Borgogni and et.al., 2013).
The rationale of the research
Since, the study has substantial concern over various factors, such as family, environment, job satisfaction, and health. The impact of these factors will be judged on India, France, and Brazil. Absenteeism of employees can prove to be quite costly for the organization. In this scenario, it can also prove to add up to the overall cost of the organization. The absenteeism percentage is quite high in these countries. Hence, in that case, it becomes important to analyze the factors that can contribute to the same. It leads to create lack of efficiency of the organization in such a manner that it can severely impact their job satisfaction aspect as well.
Aim and Objectives
The aim of the present study is to assess the factors affecting employee absenteeism: A case study on International Conglomerates in India, France, and Brazil
Based on the above research aim, the following research objectives can be formulated:
- To explore the impact of family on absenteeism of the employees
- To investigate the impact of the environment on absenteeism of employees
- To explore the impact of job satisfaction on absenteeism of employees
- To investigate the impact of health on absenteeism of employees
Based on the research objectives, the following research questions can be formulated:
- What is the impact of family on absenteeism of the employees?
- What is the impact of the environment on absenteeism of employees?
- What is the impact of job satisfaction on absenteeism of employees?
- What is the impact of health on absenteeism of employees?
Defining key concepts
As per the views of Mowdaym, Porter and Steers, (2013) absenteeism is absence of workers from their regular task that they are required to conduct in the organization in comparison to the duration they are actually scheduled to work. In other words, it has been defined by Borgogni and et.al., (2013) that, absenteeism is also related to the absence pf employees, which is involuntary, due to reason which can be considered as unavoidable from the part of employees.
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There are various determinants that will be considered to assess the absenteeism criteria in the employees. These are:
- Family: As per the opinion of Brown and et.al., (2014) family plays an important role in the absenteeism of the employees. Issues can be related to child care, elderly care. Divorce or marriage are the other reasons due to which an individual can take some time off from his / her work.
- Environment: As per the views of Mudaly and Nkosi, (2015) it is an immediate surrounding in which an individual works. There must be appropriate environment initiated for the employees in such a manner that they can perform their tasks effectively. An ineffective environmental setting can initiate changes in the working conditions of the employees and thereby resulting in a high rate of absenteeism as well.
- Jon satisfaction: It is another important aspect, which generally describes the feeling of employees, preferences, and attitude towards their work. However, the level of satisfaction varies from employee to employee as well.
- Health: As per the views of Soane and et.al., (2013) it is considered to be the most occurring reason which result in absenteeism of employees. If an individual is disabled or chronically ill, then in that case, there are higher chances of being frequently absent at the workplace.
Critically reviewing theories and models
As per the views of Soane and et.al., (2013) a model of attendance motivation was introduced in the year 1977, where, various personal characteristics of the employees were explored so as to assess their involvement with the organization. These are related to motivation of having high attendance and issues faced in traveling, is important aspect linked to absenteeism in the organization. As per the model of Steers and Rhodes, it was also analysed that, there are various personal characteristics of the employees as well, which can have greater impact on absenteeism of the employees. These factors are, gender and age, ability to attend illness and accidents and pressure to attend. The common driving force for the same is rewards and incentives. However, in comparison to this, as per the views of Gosselin, Lemyre and Corneil, (2013) Steers and Rhodes also initiated to develop a Diagnostic model of employee’s attendance where strong emphasis was made on managers, so as to understand main reasons of absence in the organization. The model helps in understanding absence culture followed, attitudes of employees, their values and goals related to completion of work are common in them. The model also suggested factors, such as, family responsibility, illness and travel issues, as the main barriers of attendance which also have greater impact on framing of organizational policies as well.
Summary of variables
Family has significant positive impact on employee absenteeism
As per the results of research conducted by Russo and et.al., (2013) there are various issues linked to family that results in absenteeism of employees. Few of them indicated in the research are, marital status, child care, responsibility of adult children towards family issues and its impact on presence of employees in the organization. Another study Merrill and et.al., (2013) reflected regarding age and gender also being a prime factor of employee absenteeism.
Environment has significant positive impact on employee absenteeism
According to Dasgupta, Suar and Singh, (2012) there are various elements related to environment as well. It can be in the form of ventilation, lighting and noise which can have stronger impact on employee’s absenteeism. Other driving force of presence of employees are, recreational facilities, clean rest rooms and sufficient amount of fresh air in the organization. Also, determinants, such as, quite and cold working environment, safe working conditions, clean work stations and availability of sufficient amount of resources helps in ensuring that the employees are present for maximum amount of time in the organization.