Organisational behaviour is the study of individual's behaviour within the organisation for increasing the efficiency of employees. It determines the impact of employees performance on the company. It helps in understanding the employees and organisation in a new and better way so that management can take steps in the areas where modifications are required. This is helpful for managers in order to motivate employees for achieving their individuals as well as organisational goals. The company taken in this assignment is David & co. Limited which is a medium sized company who is operating in food & beverages sector. The company produces a variety of food products and delivers them to hotels, restaurants etc. The assignment discusses the culture, power and politics which influences the managers and individuals in a team in the organisation. This assignment also analyses motivational techniques in achieving organisational goals by using content and process theories of motivation. Further, it also discusses effective and ineffective teams by applying concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour.
Organisational culture: It is a system which consists values beliefs and assumptions in order to determine the factors which influence the working behaviour of employees. These values have a strong effect on the employees of an organisation (Coccia, 2014). Every company has a culture which is followed by them and it also tell behaviour of the working staff In this report, Handy's typology of organisational culture is discussed that is given as under:
Handy's typology of organisational culture: This concept is proposed by Charles Handy. this theory states the organisation should follow a certain culture with shared beliefs and assumptions that the David & Co. Limited can apply in need. This topology is divided into 4 segments:
- Power culture: It is defined as the power assigned to special people of a company who has responsibilities to making effective decisions for long term. Peoples having ability can make quick judgment without the interference of other employees. In David & Co. Limited only several employees have this type of power of controlling other employees. By the help of this culture their manager should create a team with skilled employees. It gave positive impact on the organisation because due to this, organisation can achieve their desired goals in a limited period of time. It will helpful for increasing productivity and performance of the employees. .
- Role culture: This type of culture defines that employees have to perform on tasks as per their roles and responsibilities By which they can give their maximum efforts to the company. Managers of David & Co. Limited, Plays a essential role in assigning functions to the employees based on their skills and expertise for improved performance and productivity which has a positive impact on the working behaviour of individual and teams (Dartey-Baah and Amoako, 2011).
- Task culture: It refers to coming together of different skilled employees to form a team for execution of a assigned task efficiently and effectively. David & Co. Limited main priority is team formation and execute the work in a given time. The managers of David & Co. Limited can divide its staff into teams to achieve their goals which leads to increase in productivity of the organisation. Under such culture, motivation is given by management to employees to bring out maximum outcome from them which in results increase their performance level thus it makes positive impact on their interest and working behaviour of individual and teams.
- Person culture: It focus on recognising the effort of the employees by providing them enough opportunities to showcase their talent and skills. Management of David & Co. Limited can motivate their employees to give their best shot and taking considerations from them in decision making process which gives them feel that they are important for organisation. It will bring out the best from them which gives an competitive advantage to the company in the market. It makes a positive impact on the performance of team and individual due to the interest in work which will increase their performance.
After discussing all type of cultures, Task culture will be most be suitable for David & Co. Limited because they can remove inefficiency of their staff members and they will perform at given task with proper efficiency. They can also apply role culture because it will bringing value of the employees for the management.
Power: Positive power is used by managers with an aim to provide proper guidance and motivation to the employees in order to enhance their performance. It consists of various decisions taken by managers like assigning roles, providing rewards, recognition of efforts etc. David & Co. Limited has a skilled and effective management who can use this positive power to influence the working of employees in an effective way. David & Co. Limited can adopt various types of powers described below:
- Coercive power: It refers to the force exerted by superiors on individuals without their will to enhance their performance. Such power is assigned to CEO and managers. David & Co. Limited should not adopt such type of power as it will lead to dissatisfaction among employees which will effect their performance as well as organisation's performance (Del Mar Alonso-Almeida and Rodríguez-Antón, 2011). Such type of power has negative impact on the team and individual performance due to the pressure exerted by the top authority.
- Reward power: This type of power states that employees tends to feels motivated to work better and efficiently, when they are awarded on the basis of their performance through incentives and appraisals. In the case of David & Co. Limited, CEO has such power to provide rewards and other amenities with the permission from Board of Directors. This type of power has a positive impact on the team and individuals behaviour due to the rewards given by management on the basis of their performance.
- Legitimate power: It refers to the power which came from a certain leadership position or designation which stays until the position is left free. In case of David & Co. Limited, such power is assigned to CEO, which gives the authority to control other employees of the organisation. It has negative impact over the team and individuals performance due to the complete control of authority which results into less motivation of employees.
- Referent power: It is the personal power of a leader which came through respect and mutual understanding with the other employees by influencing and motivating them. This power is assigned to leaders so that they can get maximum outputs from employees and to make them loyal to the organisation (DiPaola and Tschannen-Moran, 2014). Such power has positive impact over the team and individuals performance due to the mutual understanding and trust among team members and employees.
- Expert power: This power came with the experience and in depth understanding of a specific field by working in an organisation. Managers of David & Co. Limited have such power due to their experience and problem solving skills required for smooth functioning of the team and organisation. This will also have a positive impact due to the extensive knowledge and skills required for completing the task.
- Informational power: This power is given to the individuals who can access secret financial reports and information of the company. In David & Co. Limited, CEO and top authority have such power who are maintaining the information related to financials and performance of organisation. Such type of power has a positive impact due to the support and understanding which comes by the trust to assign such type of responsibility.
Chanlat's characteristics of political behaviour: Chanlat defines political behaviour in three parts such as decisional, personal and structural. In decisional characteristic it assists the management of an organisation at the time of recruiting candidates where HR manager have duty to finding quality and capability in candidates as per the organisation's requirements. In personal characteristics it enables employees to proper use of power. Apart from that, Structural characteristic gave identification to managers of David & co. in order to making decisions as per the structure of the organisation. It will assist to employees in showing their talent to grab opportunities. By using such type of characteristics it may increase the decision making process by taking suggestion from the skilled team leaders. So that, organisation will get competitive advantage in market place.
Politics effects the team and individuals performance positively due to the work commitment of employees by giving them an opportunity to share their ideas and issues to the management. It makes negative impact on individual as well as team due to minimising their productivity and involving in other activities such as flaws and criticize others.
Motivation: It is generally termed as desire to do something better. Sometimes peoples feels motivated due to their monetary benefits or sometimes it is due to their own interest in a particular field so that they get recognition in the organisation. Motivation is an crucial factor for any organisation for influencing interest and behaviour of the employees in efficient manner. David & Co. Limited is medium sized organisation who wants to expand their business at a huge scale which can be possible by maximising efforts of their employees. For achieving this, the managers should boost the employees will to perform better by adopting various approaches and theories of motivation which are described below:
Content theory of motivation: Content theory focus on factors and needs that motivates human behaviour in an organisation. Managers of David & Co. Limited can analyse the factors which effects the working behaviour of individuals. The theory used for this is McClelland need theory of motivation (Graham, Ziegert and Capitano, 2015).
McClelland Need Theory: It is also called as Learned Need Theory by David McClelland. This theory gives an idea about the influence of desires and needs on the actions performed by individuals from the managements point of view. It is classified in 3 types as described below:
- Need for Affiliation: Employees with such need wants to maintain social and interpersonal relationship with other individuals so that other employees will recognise and like them. Such employees wants to communicate with other employees which leads to more interaction among team members of David & Co. which will directly affects the performance of company and individuals.
- Need for Achievement: Such type of employees wants to prove their work and value in order to get recognised within an organisation. In order to track their performance, they need feedback of their work from the superiors. David & Co. is providing facilities like, incentives, insurances, Financial & retirement plan etc. in order to increase the efforts of employees for enhancing individuals and organisational growth.
- Need for Power: Such peoples wants to take authority or power to control self work and other employees work. Such type people have a strong desire to lead and succeed in their ideas. Such type of need motivates the employees to bring out the best from them and get promotion to satisfy their own desire of power. In David & Co. employees needs to perform better in achieving their aim efficiently so that they can get promotion which ultimately leads to better productivity of company (Hoever and et. al., 2012).
Process theory of motivation: Process theory focus on how to motivate human behaviour. The managers at David & Co. Limited should use this theory to motivate and influence the working behaviour of employees. By applying such theory, Employees can adjust themselves in new workplace and can overcome new challenges during relocation. David & Co. organised various workshops and training in order to equip their staff with right mix of skills required for building a perfect team. The taken theory in this is Vroom's Expectancy Theory:
Vroom's expectancy theory: This theory states that behaviour is the outcome of self choices to increase the satisfaction and pleasure. Vroom states that the overall performance of employees depends upon several factors like skills, abilities, knowledge and experiences. Motivation and contribution are independent of each other. Managers of David & Co. Limited should use variables like expectancy, instrumentality and valence, In order to identify the needs and requirements of employees for achieving organisational and their personal goals (Hotho and Champion, 2011).
- Expectancy: David & Co. Limited should provide adequate training to employees so that they perform better for their own goals as well as for organisational goals.
- Instrumentality: David & Co. is giving rewards to right candidates so that they can perform as expected due to these rewards.
- Valence: David & Co. management should adopt policies to understand the needs of employees and should fulfil their requirements in order to getting better performance.
In order to accomplish the objectives at organisation level and at individual levels, Management of David & Co. should use these various approaches and theories to motivate their employees in meeting their level of expected performance. Which will leads to improved productivity and performance of both employees and organisation. Hurry Up Students! Buy Assignment UK services from us and get upto 50% OFF discount for a very limited period.
Employees plays an important part in organisation, In other words, employees are precious because their efforts can decide the growth of the firm. Furthermore, It is important to increase their skills and strength so that company can achieve their desired goal in time. Management have to make a friendly environment so that employees will share their issues with them. A hard-working team is essential for achieving competitive advantage in the market. HR manager of David & co. should implement these style so that, they can easily increase productivity and goodwill of the firm (Kazemipour and Mohd Amin, 2012).
Maintain work force is an important task for management so that, they will reduce their issues. To know teamwork's presence in the organisation we have to Difference between Effective teams and ineffective teams are as follows:
|Effective team||Non-effective team|
|It is made up with two or more people who works together for achieving a common goal by giving their efficiency and efforts in desired task||It is defined as group member who can't perform well and loses their motivation without having any purpose.|
|In effective team, members give their views and suggestion for making better work environment in the organisation||Communication is one way so their feedback is not taken by the management, due to this, they can't work effectively for given task.|
|In this style, goals are assigned properly and work is clarified, so that team members give their effort to accomplish the given task.||In it, team leaders only focuses on achieving team goals they gave no focus on needs and wants of team members. So that, team members are not involved for completing a task.|
To build an effective team there are some qualities of it which is required by David & co. Ltd. They are defined as below:
- Mutual cooperation: it is an important quality which will helpful for creating a effective team, It will reduce the conflicts between team leader and members. It helps in build a communication structure in organisation so that employees would share their issues with management. By using this HR manager of David & co. may know needs and wants of their employees and gave focus on fulfilling their desire. By it, their working efficiency will be increased which is helpful for achieving goals of firm (Laforet, 2011).
- Balanced Roles: It is also an effective part which is connected with team leaders. In it, roles and responsibilities of employees are properly defined by the team leaders so that they will perform effectively in a determined structure. Furthermore, it will be helpful for management in evaluating their performance at workplace.
- Good communication: It is important to build a communication structure in the organisation. Because it plays an important part for achieving growth of the firm. Transparency in system will be helpful, Because by it, members will easily communicate their issues and get solution of them by the team-leaders (Lu, 2014).
- Effective leadership: It enables effectiveness of team leaders on their team. It is helpful for giving right direction and guidance during the work which increases motivation in them. Leaders should contains this qualities such as good listening, communication skills and interpersonal skills which is helpful for motivating members to work with efficiency and develop their skills so that they can face challenges. It helps to management to get competitive opportunities in the market place.
Tuckman and Jenson's model of team
This model is given by Bruce tuckman in 1965. It defines focus on building team and its members, Being a HR manager of David & Co. Limited should use this model to build a proficient team and manage them in different conditions. It increases trust and loyalty of team members which is helpful for management in achievement of their desired objectives. In this model we have to discuss four stages which are given as under:
- Forming : It is the first part of this model, It directs management for assembling of team members. In other words it is highly dependent on leaders for their suggestion and guidence during the work. In David & Co. Limited, HR manager should assigned duties with the opportunities to grow so that outcome will be positive for the firm.
- Storming: In second part, leaders of David & Co. Limited should gave motivation to their team members so that members will gave contribution for achieving desired tasks in time which will helps in growth of firm.
- Norming: This part is connected with cooperation and combination of team members for the given task. In context of David & Co. Limited their HR manager should develop a flow chart for completing a task in systematic manner (Owoyemi and Ekwoaba, 2014).
- Performing: It is the last part of model, in this model members are aware from various challenges so they gave more focus on completing a task with using their skills and strength. By using this model HR manager of David & Co. Limited develops a close bond between employees and management in the organisation.
Path goal theory of Leadership: It is invented by House and Mitchell in 1974. It is based on effectiveness of a team leader on their team members in the organisation. It is used by a company for achieving goals in time. This theory describes a way to leaders how they supervision and support their team members for completing a task. It is based on expectancy theory which is given by victor vroom. It says that efficiency in work of employees are based on their expectation. By giving reward of work their efficiency will be increased that will overcome their deficiencies and outcome will be positive for organisation (Suppiah and Singh Sandhu, 2011).
Through this theory, David & Co. Limited can analyse needs and wants of the employees and they will be evaluate what problem is faced by their employees at the workplace. It will increases efficiencies and capabilities of their employees for desired task. It will be helpful for their employees to deal with different challenges. In addition to this David & Co. Limited have to motivate their employees for achieving the goals in time with giving them rewards on their performance. Being a HR manager of David & Co. Limited should maintain better relations with their employees for achieving success in the market.
This model is explained as follows:
Employee characteristics : It refers to capacity or adopting ability of employees at workplace. In an organisation, management wants to create an environment for their employees so they achieves goals in time, In addition to this if team members are not able for performing a task or they have no ability to finished given task this style will not helpful. In David & co. limited, it may be helpful for their employees, they will get more focus on work. So that they will be able to perform a task with motivation (Williams and Grossett, 2011).
Task and environmental characteristics: it is measured as important part of this theory, By this characteristic employees wants a way for work, such as clarifying the goals, support from leader at a difficult task and motivation during the task. By using this style organisation can easily achieve a desired goal in a systematic manner. For manager of David & co. Ltd. it may be helpful to bring their efficient employees together for performing a difficult task which is important for achieving goals. Through this style they feel valued in organisation and the objectives will be achieved in time. Some characteristics of this style are explained as follows:
- Design of task: It is connected with leader or superior in the organisation, through this, management have to elaborate every duties and responsibilities of employees during the task. Being a HR manager of David & co. Their guidance will be helpful for their employees so that they will gave their efforts for completing the desired task (Wood and et. al., 2016.).
- Formal authority system: It directs employee to follow the guidelines which are made by their leaders or managers. In David & co., It will be useful for controlling future uncertainties and overcome them.
- Work group- It give right directions to leaders for bringing motivation and spirit in their team members at workplace so that their desired objectives will be achieved in time.
- Leadership styles : In an organisation, management or leader plays various roles, their behaviour will be changed according to goals and objectives of organisation. It is divided in various styles they are as follows:
- Directive: In this style, management or team leader plays their roles as a director for their employees or team members to achieving goals of the organisation. In David & co. leaders have to gave proper guidance to their members such as define their roles and responsibilities on a given task. It gives negative impact also in the organisation when members are unsure about the task.
- Participative : By using this style, Organisation can take help or suggestions from their employees for solving a problem. In addition to this when an organisation recruit knowledgeable person so that management takes help to make better decision for achievement of goals. Being a HR manager of David & co. they should recruit a well-educated and experienced staff so that their suggestion will be taken in critical situations (The Hierarchy of Human Needs: Maslow’s Model of Motivation, 2018).
- Supportive : This style directs the managers to create a culture in organisation where employees can share their issues with them. In it, manager have to focus on needs and expectations of employees. They should gave support to staff when it needed. HR manager of David & co. should use this kind of leadership, because it is helpful in condition when an individual who is working in their firm has a personal problem.
- Achievement : In this part leader creates difficulty in working structure, by it they want to evaluate workforces ability to face it. In addition to this, Manager motivates their staff members to show more efficiency in their work for building confidence in handling such conditions. Being a HR manager of David & co. may use this kind for examine their employee's strength and skills in handling problems which occurs during the task (Models of Organisational Culture - Handy, 2015).
It is analysed from above report that organisational culture plays an important part of role in the organisation. Management should adopt various style of team management in order to achievement of goals. It assists to management in analysing skills and strengths of employees so that, effectiveness in working and strengths of workforce will be achieved. It allows managers of David & co. to follow organisation culture for getting changes in working behaviour of employees. Furthermore, it enables management to following theories of motivation which increases performance level of their employees and they will gave their maximum efforts towards the goal of firm.