- Analyse all culture, politics and power on the behaviour in company
- Evaluate how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how to co-operate effectively with others.
- Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational.
Organisational behaviour is the field of study which majorly focusses over behaviour, attitude and perception of an individual towards an accomplishment of business goals or objective. The primal goal of OB is to explain, identify, analyse and anticipate personnel attributes or interest in order to bring increased level of satisfaction and motivation among organisational working culture (BakotiÄ‡, 2016). It is considered as multidisciplinary field, because it is impacted by various sort of disciplines like sociology, psychology, economics and also the experience of practitioners. Moreover, it enable an establishment to manage workforce diversity as well as help them to provide enormous platforms for enhance the capability of individual, team in an efficacious and expeditious way. This report is based upon Mark and Spencer, which is one the reputed retailer in UK and it is commenced in the year of 1884. It offers wide range of products like clothing, home goods, food items and serve at an international level. In this study, it involves effect of establishment culture, power and politics over personnel, team attitude and implication of motivational theories. Finally, how effective team are different from ineffective group as well as usage of various OB concepts and philosophies are also explained here.
P1 Impact of organisational culture, power and politics on individual and team
OB is the study which encompasses the influence of individuals group and structure within an establishment. Due to intense level of global competition, it is becoming necessary for every establishment to build their manpower flexible as well as train them to cope up with all current or emerging trend of industry in an impressive and productive way. Organisation is a place where group of individuals come together with an aim of accomplishing common goal or vision in an effectual and expeditious manner within desired time period (Balwant, 2018). Along with this, behaviour of every personnel is unpredictable which require proper guidance and governance so that they can feel motivated to put their best contribution for an attainment of high level of productivity in a better way. In regard of Mark and Spencer, it is one of the branded and well - known company among UK retail industry which faces several challenges from internal and external factors of business environment that directly influence on firm's decision making. However, Mark and Spencer undergoes with a huge effect of organisational culture, power and politics which is explained below:
Every organisational contains its own environment or procedure which is directly connected with an attitude or perception of every personnel to carry out the goal or objective of concern within prescribed period of time in an improved way. However, organisational culture is a set of values, behaviours and shared vision that contribute to the environment of an organisation in order to add value to company's brand image. An efficacious working condition brings various benefits like high employee encouragement, increased satisfaction, team spirit and many more that lead an enterprise to obtain profit maximisation with an optimal utilisation of resources in a better way (Bester, Stander and Van Zyl, 2015). On the contrary, if organisation fails to accomplish the same then it will rise to huge conflicts or disputes among personnel that will directly impact over firm's productivity in negative way. Thus, Handy's culture model is regarded as an efficacious concept because it help company to maintain better working environment for obtaining high level of satisfaction (Handy Model of organizational culture. 2019). In context of Mark and Spencer, it implies the same within their functional areas which are as follows:
- Power: This aspect encompasses those sort of organisation in which authority and control are limited to only some group of individuals which results in miscommunication and conflicts among team members. Due to such working culture, it put pressure over each personnel to pursue the instruction and regulations of their manager for accomplishing the firm's task in a better way.
- Role :Under this, it is concern with those establishment which is highly job oriented for an attainment of productivity. However, in this every personnel are delegated with various roles and responsibilities based on their capabilities and potentiality. This is the reason, it empower employees to put their best contribution towards an achieving of business goal or objective without any hindrances and it reflects in growth of enterprise proficiency (Burrell and Morgan, 2017).
- Task: In this, an organisation develop various team and each of them are assigned with particular job which they have to perform with full team spirit. Hence, it help them to build positivity and can easily tackle over communication gap in order to attain sustainable profitability ratio.
- Person: Under this, each employees are more concern about self rather than organisation which generate a possibility of arising disputes and misunderstanding within business premises that directly influence over concern decision making ability in a negative way. Moreover, control mechanism and even management hierarchies are impossible in these cultures except by mutual consent. Thus, Mark and Spencer makes an attempt to analyse subordinates expert skills which motivate them to put their best contribution for an accomplishment of organisational goal (Marques and et.al., 2018).
Henceforth, role culture is regraded as an appropriate for Mark and Spencer as it help its manager to determine the ability of each personnel and empower them to place in proper position. With the help of this, it bring high level of motivation among manpower and they put their best effort for an accomplishment of Mark and Spencer's pre determined goal (Chang and et. al., 2016).
It refer to the capacity and ability of an individual to influence subordinates in order to obtain maximisation of profit with an optimal utilisation of resources in an effectual and prompt manner. In regard of Mark and Spencer, it is meant not only in acquiring certain results achieved but also focuses over negative determination or action of non decisions which aid firm to improve their overall performance in an impressive and productive way (Greenspan, Walk and Handy, 2018). Hence, Mark and Spencer applies French and Raven's forms of power that encompasses various kinds of authority and each of them comes under the classification of personal or formal which is explained below:
- Legitimate: This sort of power belongs to those authority which only get utilised to make demands, complaints in a formal or organised manner. Along with this, it is viewed as unpredictable and unstable nature because once position get lose then there will be no usage of having dominance within an organisation (Cherry, 2017). In relation to Mark and Spencer, its manger forms a team and assign each member with different activities. Thus, in that case, superior were always keep their eyes over their performance and based on that take corrective course of action i.e. in the form of reward or punishment.
- Reward: Under this, it comprises with an ability of personnel to recognise the effort of manpower in order to provide fair and effective benefits in terms of promotion, praise for enhancing firm's profitability in a better way. However, if it is not properly maintained and examined then it may give rise to huge conflicts within business function which effect organisation productivity in a negative way (Mir, Bhasin and Rasool, 2016). For example, Mark and Spencer's leader makes an attempt to evaluate its personnel contribution and recognise their effort towards organisational goal by rendering certificate, vote of appreciation, monetary or non- monetary reward etc. By this, Mark and Spencer can be enable to bring high level of motivation among manpower and it directly reflect over enhancement in company's proficiency.
- Expert: This involves those manpower who contain detailed or in depth information as well as skilled in specific field or department which enable them to cope up with all current and emerging trend of marketplace. Additionally, it help an superior to gain high level of trust and respect from employees that benefits them in attaining impressive rate of productivity (Walls and Berrone, 2017). In relation to M&S, they identifies the ability of each personnel as well as examine in which field they are expert so that they can place them in right position within firm. With the help of this, Mark and Spencer can create better working culture and also can be aware about all modification which occurs within business environment in order to attain sustainable profitability.
- Referent: It is relates with evasive ability of an individuals which is entirely focuses over interpersonal attraction. This kind of authority does not mean that a person has positional power instead it means that manager is well- regarded, respected and admired by followers for accomplishing their goal in an amended way ( E. Nir and Hameiri, 2014). For example, If M&S leader provide equal growth platforms and empower each personnel to take participate into business activities which help manager to acquire trust and respect from employees. Due to this, it benefit them by enriching their profit margin ratio in a better way.
- Coercive: This type of authority is opposite to reward power as it is fully based on a potentiality of a person who cause an unpleasant experience for its subordinates i.e. punishments, suspension, dismissal. However, in some cases of an organisations, employer are forced to acquire this dominance over manpower so that they can maintain the establishment code of conduct in a better manner (Coccia, 2015).
However, expert power is regarded as suitable for Mark and Spencer's manager because it assist them to examine the industry situation in an trenchant manner as well as they can be able to make best strategic decision which lead them to gain competitive advantage in an innovative and creative way.
Workplace politics is wholly based upon two foremost concepts i.e. relationship and policies which help an individual to govern or monitor the entire business operation or function in an improved way. However, the perception of organisation politics as a moderator of relationship between conscientiousness and job performance which impact positively and negatively over working culture. Hence, for generating better working culture an establishment require effective management and coordination within business premises. There are various reason which arises conflicts or disputes among team members such as communication gap, partiality, resist to change and many more. In context of this, if Mark and Spencer's manager fails to render accurate and relevant information to its manpower then it generate confusion or ambiguity among employees and it effect negatively over firm's capability in attaining productivity. Likewise, not providing sufficient amount of growth platforms to employees or showing partiality in assigning the task then it create intense level of dissatisfaction within subordinates which restricts them to put their best effort for an accomplishment of establishment goal within desired time frame in an amended way (Coxen, Van der Vaart and Stander,2016). Therefore, in relation to Mark and Spencer, for building better relationship with staff and acquiring trust, satisfaction from them its superior needs to be sensitive towards personnel interest or capabilities. With the help of this, company's employer can overcome over communication gap and also can empower each manpower for giving their foremost attempt for obtaining profit maximisation in an impressive and productive style. Additionally, providing equal opportunity as well as participating employees in every business activities that assist Mark and Spencer's superior to strengthen its workforce morale in a better way in order to obtain sustainable proficiency ratio.
P2 Application of content and process theories of motivation
For surviving within competing marketplace for longer period of time, employee motivation and encouragement plays a significant role as it help an organisation to obtain maximisation of profit in an effectual and economical way. Additionally, motivated manpower lead a firm to achieve increased productivity as well as it allow an establishment to acquire higher level of output. There are several theories or models related to motivation which is classified into two divisions i.e. content and process. However, Mark and Spencer implies both content and process theories into their business operation so that they can examine personnel need or demand efficaciously and can take corrective course of action to gain increased level of satisfaction. (Erasmus, Grobler and Van Niekerk, 2015).
This concepts focal point is to identify the internal factors of manpower and taking corrective course of action to gain increased level of satisfaction which strengthen each personnel behaviour for accomplishing pre determined task in an effective way (Content Theory and Process Theory of Motivation. 2019). It includes Maslow hierarchy, Alderfer's ERG theory, Herzberg motivation hygiene and many more which assist employer to attain high proficiency ratio.
Maslow Hierarchy Need Theory
- Physiological needs: This phase is concerned with basic essentials like food, shelter, clothing which is require for every human being to survive in a better way. However, this need is considered as most dominant over other because satisfaction of physiological requirements enable each personnel to gain increased level of motivation and empower them to contribute towards an attainment of goal. Therefore, in context of Mark and Spencer, its manager make assure that they must provide fair and impressive reward so that manpower can easily fulfil their needs in a better way. Moreover, they can gain positive perception for organisation that benefit firm to gain competitive advantage (Geppert, 2017).
- Safety and security needs:It includes work safety, health insurance, job security, stability and many more that directly effect company's decision making processes. In regard of Mark and Spencer, employer generate a feeling within manpower that their job profile is stable and long lasting by providing any written agreement. Due to this, each individual feels secure and help them to work in full enthusiasm which aid Mark and Spencer to overcome over labour turnover.
- Social needs: Once physiological and safety gets fulfilled then the next stage which arises among personnel is social connection or interaction which is gain from friends, family, relatives etc. within business premises. However, in case of Mark and Spencer, employer makes an initiative to form various team or group which enable every individual to improve coordination as well as help them to cope up with issues like loneliness. Furthermore, it improve overall performance of Mark and Spencer and can maintain better working condition in an improved way.
- Self esteem needs: Under this, employee seek for getting recognised or admired by employer which boost their morale in an improved way. Some of the examples are dignity, achievement, mastery, independence and etc. Therefore, Mark and Spencer's manager makes an attempt to analyse the performance of each individual and based on that provide them impressive incentive, bonus, promotion, benefits. With the help of this, Mark and Spencer manpower feels highly motivated and satisfied that directly reflects in the growth of company's productivity and profit margin ratio (Goh, Ritchie and Wang, 2017).
Self actualisation needs: This phase is viewed as last factor in Maslow's theory as it is concern with those individual who seeks for growth or development to their fullest potential. Along with this, workforce desire to make use of all available opportunity which lead them to enhance their capability by acquiring all possible training or development activity (Brinia and Papantoniou, 2016).
This theory of motivation is mainly centring over determining the ways to motivate human behaviour or attitude towards an accomplishment of business objective within desired time period. Under this, it includes Vroom Expectancy theory, Adam's equity theory, Skinner's reinforcement and so on that help an organisation to achieve their pre determined task in given time frame (Hall, Malinen, Vosslamber and Wordsworth, eds., 2016).
It explains that motivation is a procedure or activity which monitors or supervises choices among alternatives forms of voluntary behaviour. There are three factors which are as follows:
- Expectancy: Under this phase, each personnel beliefs that putting more effort or contribution enable them to bring out a successful outcome that add value to their performance within organisational culture. In regard of Mark and Spencer, manager takes an initiative to arrange sectoral business activity or training program so that manpower can improve their hidden talents or capabilities in order to acquire sustainable profitability (McGregor, 2014).
- Instrumentality: In this, every personnel agrees that there is a link between activity and goal as they thinks that better performance aid them to gain impressive reward. However, in context of Mark and Spencer, manager must adhere to the promises which they give during hiring a candidate. Hence, it will help them to stay within organisation for longer period of time that enrich Mark and Spencer's brand value among industry in terms of labour turnover (Katou, 2015).
- Valance: This degree is relates with evaluation of employee performance. Hence, in relation to Mark and Spencer, they takes an attempt to examine each personnel presentation towards business goals and according to that rendering fair reward or benefits like incentive, bonus, promotion in order to enhance the relationship between employer and employee.
Therefore, it has been evaluated from the above theories that content theory is more effective than process and also viewed as a best fit for Mark and Spencer. This is because, content theory is more emphasising over individual need which is very essential for organisation in order to acquire high level of satisfaction without any hindrances. Moreover, it help Mark and Spencer's employer to identify personnel interest and requirement and according to that they can take corrective course of action which enable them to build better relationship as well as improves their morale in an amended way.
P3 Difference between effective and ineffective team
In current scenario of marketplace, which is highly competitive and challenging to survive as well as to obtain sustainable profitability in an improved manner. In every aspect of business, the diverse skills and capabilities of teams are needed as it lead them to reach success in an innovative or creative manner (Khaola and Sebotsa, 2015). Moreover, it enable Mark and Spencer to acquire enormous opportunity which help them to enlarge their market share or size in an impressive way. However, there are two types of teamwork that is effective and ineffective. Hence, effective group are those who make use of available resources in an optimum manner and tries to strengthen their ability for an attainment of increased level of proficiency ratio. ON the other hand, ineffective team are always resist themselves in adapting any kind of changes or modification for an enhancing market share in a better way. Some of the difference between effective and ineffective team are as given below:
Under this, personnel are highly goal oriented which empower them to put their best contribution for an achievement of organisational goal in an effective and efficient manner without nay hindrances. Moreover, they takes an initiative to listen to others as well as work with full team spirit for obtaining better outcome in order to survive within competing marketplace (Meirovich and Gu, 2015).
They are concern with those group of people, who are not ready to acquire any sort of changes or modification as well as take less participation in business activity which impact company's proficiency rate in a negative way as well as reduces the brand value of firm among industry (Turkelson and et.al., 2017).
Belbin theory is the one which states that each individual within the business posses a different pattern of behaviour which differentiate one person' behaviour to the another in facilitating the progress within a group of people. In general he stated this theory as a tendency to behave , contribute and interrelate with one another in a particular way (Brock and et.al., 2017). To improve the overall efficiency of the team Belbin has consider Nine team role such as :
- Shaper : In context of the business like Mark and Spenser they must assure that the manager which they have hired are capable enough to shape the business and also to guide their subordinates in such a manner so that the improvement in the working of individual as well as the team can be done in the effective manner (Belbin Team Role Model. 2019.).
- Implementer: The business of Mark and Spenser must ensure that all the plan and strategies which are manager have formulated to improve the performance of the team are applied in a practical manner within the business in order to enhance the productivity and profitability of the association. Because implementer within the business are the one who are responsible for getting the things done by right person at right time (Maitland, Hills and Rhind, 2015).
- Complete finisher : The manager of the Mark and Spenser is required to check whether the execution of the plan is done in a complete manner or not what hurdles are arising and how those conflicts can be resolved.
- Coordinators : In this stage of the team role the manager of the Mark and Spenser will focus on the factor of coordinating the work among the members of the team and also focus on guiding the team member to work with proper guidance so that the goal of the business can be attained within a short duration of time (Liubchenko and Sulimova, 2017).
- Team member : Here the business should focus on the maintaining of the relationship between the members of the team so that the member within the team can perform their task in collective nature without causing harm to one another towards the accomplishment of the common goal (Olatunde, Ogunsemi and Oke, 2017). For instance, M&S encourage its team members to provide equal opportunity to each other in terms of sharing their views or opinion which help them to acquire novel ideas and can achieve their task within prescribed time period.
- Resource investigator : The business of Mark and Spenser should focus on hiring of the person who have the proper skill and knowledge about the research activity so that the activity of research for the business can be performed in the systematic manner and identification about the requirement of the resources can be analysed and the member of the team can perform the task in the most effective manner (Mesu, Sanders and Riemsdijk, 2015).
- Plant : Here the business must assure that the person whom they have hired is good in exploring the new ways of doing the business with the help of the team member. Plant are the person in the business who always tries to create new ideas and approaches for the business so that the profitability of the business can be enhanced (Pons and Haefele, 2016). In context of M&S, they acquire highly skilled workforce who is able to adapt any kind of changes or modification of business environment in order to gain competitive advantage in an innovative and creative style.
- Monitor Evaluator : These are the person who will empower the business of Mark and Spenser with all the pros and cons of operating the business with the new ideas and plans by which the evaluation of the programmes by the business can be done in the best way. Which ideas to be implemented and which is to be ignored so that the team can easily focus on the factor which is beneficial to them (Tako and Kotiadis, 2015).
- Specialist : Hiring of the specialist by the business of Mark and Spenser will enable them to identify the overall business operations which can leads to the increased productivity and profitability of the business (Mohelska and Sokolova, 2015).
P4 Implication of concepts and philosophies
Path Goal Theory
It was formulated by Martin Evans in the year 1971 in order to supply the subject matter to the leaders in the organisation so that they can select the specific behaviour suitable to the workforce. This theory provides necessary information regarding various leadership styles that can be utilised in the establishments to manage the operations of the employees to attain the effective results and accomplish the goals and objectives (Tangaraja and et. al., 2015). It states that a great leader sets high goals, participates in the fulfilment of the goal and gives clear directions to the employees. It is appropriate in emergencies and conditions where there is lack of time. This theory is flexible because the orders are determined and given by the responsible supervisor only and also it can be utilised in the knowledgable groups. The ideas mentioned in the theory are easy to interpret.
In context of Mark & Spencer this theory will assists the leaders in motivating, empowering and satisfying the employees. It will provide productive results and will benefit both the working personnel and the leader or management. Hence, the performance of the employees in the organisation will increase and will result in fruitful results. The success in Marks & Spencer will be achieved through the collective performance of the workers, departments and management. Path goal theory alludes several aspects that are provided as follows:
- Employee attributes- In an enterprise various employees performs their tasks with different working styles. The differences in the styles of working are due to competencies, knowledge, education and skills. The leaders allocate the works to the employees according to the their distinct skills and behaviour. This style of management is essential in an organisation as it leads to favourable results and effective production. In regard of M&S, its leaders delegate roles and responsibilities to employees based on their potentiality which encourage them to put full contribution for an achievement of business goal in an efficacious and prompt way (Tangaraja and et. al., 2015).
- Task and Environmental attributes- It is one of the important factor and role of the theory. It benefits Mark and Spencer in an attainment of the planned objectives on specified time without nay hindrances (Weng and et. al., 2015). This further contains some constituents given as under-
- Formal authority system- In Marks & Spencer, in the context of this component the supervisor may offer coherent goals to the members of the team so that they can accomplish them in desired time. All are allotted certain roles and responsibilities that they have to effectively carry out in the establishment and all are responsible for their part of the work (Wood and et. al., 2016).
- Work group- In Marks & Spencer under this constituent, the leader provides assistance in resolving the problems and downsizing the conflicts in case of the presence of the non-supportive members in the team. The leader perform planning task responsibly and coordinates the works with clear vision.
- Behaviour and style of leader- There are different characteristics of behaviour in leaders. They may be either directive, accomplishment, supportive, participative and various other. The behaviour of the leader is connected with satisfaction of employees, their motivation and performance. to All these styles of leadership aids the leader in encouraging the workforce and leading them efficiently so as to succeed in the various tasks of the organisation that are helpful in the fulfilling the strategic objectives in estimated time period (Weng and et. al., 2015).
Styles of leadership-
- Directive style- Leaders in this style prepares a task plan for employees and directs them in performing the work. In Marks & Spencer leader implements this style to get positive outcomes from employees (Katou, 2015).
- Achievement style- In this style leaders sets the goals which are challenging and discusses with them their expectations from work. In Marks & Spencer the leaders uses it for handling the sales persons, engineers and technicians (Khaola and Sebotsa, 2015).
- Participative style- The leaders with this style takes consultation from the workers in the decision making processes. In Marks & Spencer the leader involves the employees in taking various determination regarding certain conclusions needed in planning (Maitland, Hills and Rhind, 2015).
- Supportive style- In this style the behaviour of the leader is oriented towards the employees needs, satisfaction and preferences. It is utilised by leaders of Marks & Spencer in the distressing conditions .
The main aim of this theory is enhancing the motivation level among the employees so as to make them operate their tasks with efficacy and thereby benefit the company to acquire its enterprise objectives (Wood and et. al., 2016). It defines the very clear and practical roles of the leader in an organisation.
It has been signified from the above discussed report that determining each individuals capabilities and skills helps an organisation to build a better relationship and also assist them to achieve their goal in a better way without any hindrances. Along with this, there are various theories or models which provide a proper direction or guidance to manager in terms of generating high level of motivation and satisfaction with working culture. Moreover, a study of organisational behaviour assist superior to makes an attempt in providing equal opportunities with an aim of obtaining maximum level of profit by make use of available resources in a better way.
- BakotiÄ‡, D., 2016. Relationship between job satisfaction and organisational performance.Economic research-Ekonomska istraÅ¾ivanja.29(1). pp.118-130.
- Balwant, P. T., 2018. The meaning of student engagement and disengagement in the classroom context: lessons from organisational behaviour.Journal of Further and Higher Education.42(3). pp.389-401.
- Bester, J., Stander, M. W. and Van Zyl, L. E., 2015. Leadership empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and turnover intention in a manufacturing division.SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 41(1). pp.1-14.
- Burrell, G. and Morgan, G., 2017.Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Routledge.
- Chang, K. and et. al., 2016. HR practice, organisational commitment & citizenship behaviour: a study of primary school teachers in Taiwan.Employee Relations. 38(6). pp.907-926.
- Cherry, S., 2017.Transforming behaviour: Pro-social modelling in practice. Willan.
- Coccia, M., 2015. Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources.Coccia, M.(2014)’Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources’, Int. J. Services Technology and Management. 20(4/5). p.6.
- Coxen, L., Van der Vaart, L. and Stander, M. W., 2016. Authentic leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour in the public health care sector: The role of workplace trust.SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 42(1). pp.1-13.
- Erasmus, B. J., Grobler, A. and Van Niekerk, M., 2015. Employee retention in a higher education institution: An organisational development perspective.Progressio.37(2). pp.33-63.
- Geppert, M., 2017.Beyond the Learning Organisation: Paths of Organisational Learning in the East German Context: Paths of Organisational Learning in the East German Context. Routledge.