Assessment will cover certain following areas like:
- Explain culture, politics and power on the behaviour of Waitros
- Evaluate how to motivate individuals and teams to frame Waitros
- Demonstrate all the Waitros co-operate effectively with others.
- Evaluate Waitros concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour
Organizational behaviour can be defined as the study of human behaviour and their actions within business. It is the systematic study and implication of knowledge about group of people and individuals action within company whereas they offer their services. To study about organization behaviour provides deep understanding of all prospects which can inspire staff, improve their performance and supports company to build strong and loyal relationship with staff. It has wide scope in today’s world such it supports to motivate staff in the workplace. it helps leader to create effective teams and groups as well as develop healthy working environment within job place. Management of the organization enables to take fair decision within organization by deep understanding about employee’s behaviour regarding their job responsibilities through organization behaviour. To understand roles of organization behaviour has an example of Waitrose. It is a British supermarkets organization which is headquartered in Bracknell, England, UK. It sells groceries as part of Britain’s largest retailers. The main goal of the report is to develop individuals understanding of promoting culture, politics and powers that impacts on the behaviour of others in the business context. It includes different motivation theories and approaches to influence individuals and teams to gain goal of the company in this report.
Impact of culture, politics and power on the individual’s behaviour within organization
Organization culture encompasses psychology, beliefs, values and experiences of individuals or organization which influences to work in right direction. A positive organizational culture always provides good people in the company who supports to lead high productivity within organization and meets it’s objectives over the time. To get success in the business requires to understand about cultural differences because it helps company to meet individual objectives effectively within workplace (Carmona, 2019). Diversity in workplace develops creative working environment as well as make company more competent as compared others in the business market. Therefore, It increase trust and influence work relationship needs to aware common difference between cultures. To understand cultural difference has an example of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension theory. This model is based on the six dimension of cultures which are described as follows:
- Power distance Index- This is first dimension of the Hofstede’s theory that expresses the degree to which inequality and power are stand by society. For example, low power distance index denotes that few organization’s culture accepts inequality and power differences and shows more respect towards senior authorities (Fan and Fujimoto, 2018). On the other hand, high power distance index denotes that few organization’s culture influences organizational structures that are flat type whereas management adapts participative leadership style and emphasis on power distribution among staff. Waitrose follows this organizational culture and empowers it’ staff by involving them into decision-making process.
- Collectivism vs Individualism- This dimension considers the extent to which community are integrated into group and follows all obligation and properly dependent on team members. Individualism denotes that few organization cultures encourages individuals to achieve their tasks independently instead of working in group. In other word, each employee performs different tasks but independently within workplace. on the other hand, collectivism denotes that some organizations boost teamworking and motivates them to achieve common goal together. The main goal of such kind culture is to maintain wellbeing of individuals and achieves it’s objective in efficient manner.
- Uncertainty Avoidance index- This dimension indicates the degree to which community or members of community does not feel comfort zone due to ambiguity and uncertainty. There are two type cultures i.e. high uncertainty and low uncertainty culture which gives different response in different situations. For example, low uncertainty avoidance denotes that few organizations always try to avoid risk-taking project that shows such type organizations has low tolerance for risks (Halkos and Petrou, 2018). On the other hand, low uncertainty avoidance index denotes that few organizations who always ready to take risk-taking project. this type organization has high tolerance for the risk and it’s staff are more creative s compared others.
- Femininity vs Masculinity- The masculinity dimension represents that culture whereas organization keeps gender inequality and concentrate on wealth-building instead of employee’s wellbeing. While femininity demonstrates the culture whereas organization keeps equality in gender and focuses on employee wellbeing within workplace.
- Short-term vs Long-term- It is another dimension of culture that denotes two type cultures i.e. short-term oriented culture whereas management of organization follows autocratic leadership styles to achieve short-term goals. This type culture unable to achieve long-term goals due to less retention of individuals within workplace. while long-term orientation focuses on future goals and make present stronger by delivering short-term success. in other word, management of the organization follows democratic leadership style and focus on individual’s wellbeing within company (Holliday, 2016).
- Restrain vs Indulgence- It is another dimension of culture whereas indulgence denotes that a community permits to show their achievements. While restraint denotes that society or organization does not express their achievement in front of others.
Waitrose has used this cultural dimension model to being aware common difference between culture as result it has strong organization culture that causes it has good brand image in the business market. It provides good organizations culture as result behaviour of individuals or group of people is positive. This dimension model helps company to influence individuals and team to give high performance within workplace.
Organizational politics can be defined as the informal ways or activities that affiliated with the use of promote tactics to enhance organizational interest (Jonas, 2016). It plays essential role in the workplace because it develops self-serving behaviours that individuals use to influence it’s performance and probability of receiving positive outcomes in the organization. there is various type of politics i.e. personal, decisional, structural and organizational change takes place within workplace. for example, personal politics that takes place between employees for the promotion. To get upper position from existing creates competition between staff and individuals always try to give outstanding performance in tasks. decisional politics uses by management to achieve high profitability within company. So, management involves group of people in decision-making process so that feel themselves valuable for the company and reduces conflict issues. Structural politics whereas owner of the company follows organizational structure to oversee all functional units effectively. It is a type of politics because here owner empowers it’s staff by offering control on their staff but keep control on these authorities so that gets positive outcomes within company. Organizational change is also categorized into politics whereas management implement it’s decision on staff to get success on dynamic environment. In addition, management follows leadership approach as well and encourages it’s staff to accept change and give effective performance within workplace (Wegerif and et.al., 2019). leadership approach is a part of politics to influence staff to follow all decision which has implemented. Most of the time such kind politics reductant relationship between staff and management and creates conflict crisis among them.
French and Revan proposed organizational power model to develop understanding about types of power that uses by senior authorities within organization to keep control on workforces. There are five type powers i.e. legitimate, rewards, expert, coercive and referent power. Reward power is one of the main important power that gives leader and management within organization. managers gives rewards in term of incentives, bonus to those employees who puts more efforts to lead success within company. While expert power is another power whereas individual gets power from the organization based on the knowledge and expertise. This type power gives long lasting benefits in the organization by offering innovative ideas (Kollmann and et.al., 2020). Legitimate power mean individuals empower itself based of the position i.e. CEO, management and others. Coercive power is totally opposite of reward power. With the coercive power leader enables to control on staff actions and their performance. Leader has power to involve staff in decision-making process so that individuals feel valuable themselves for the company. Referent power is referred to the ability to encourage others to achieve common goal. this power is not granted by others, it is automatically gained by people due to good behaviour or role model. This model follows by Waitrose to empower it’s staff within organization so that individual feel themselves as a part of family. The major drawback of the model is that it requires good managerial skills in management and good organizational culture then organization can influence others effectively.
Motivation theories and techniques
There are two types of motivation i.e. extrinsic and intrinsic that influence individuals an team to give high performance and maintains their wellbeing in the working place.
It explores the factor that motivates individual to give high efforts in their performance by fulfilling their desires and satisfy their requirements. Maslow’s hierarchical needs theory is proposed by Abrahams Maslow to understand needs of individuals whereas they work. This theory is based on five basic needs of human being which they expect. Psychological needs are the primary and common need of the person. It includes good working environment, air-conditioning rooms, hygienic workplace and proper sitting arrangement etc. that encourage individuals to work effectively on the workplace. Safety needs includes workplace safety, personal belonging safety, compensation security and others etc. highly demanding needs (Lloyd and Mertens, 2018). Everyone expects that whereas they offer their service that place must be safe and secure. When individuals get proper security within workplace that encourages them to give additional hours expect working hours tom complete the project or task on time. Belonging needs contains healthy working environment, highly supportive management and teamworking etc. are essential needs of human being because it maintains their wellbeing and retains them prolong with company. Esteem needs are respect, recognition and others etc. also expect by individuals to the employer when they work. Accomplishment of all above needs leads self-actualization in individuals for the job which is last stage of hierarchical needs theory. Waitrose applies this model within organization and offers best quality facilities to the staff within workplace and gives values individuals by involving them into decision-making process and functions. Thus, company encourages individuals to give high performance in the workplace. the major drawback of the theory is this it lead high turnover of staff within organization as result gets competitive disadvantage in the competition market.
It is a systematic motivation theory that provide understanding that how individuals need change as per the situation. Adams equality model is the process motivation theory model that is proposed by John Stacey Adams to understand balance between output and input. This theory model is specially organized to influence team to give high efforts within workplace. Equity theory model keeps fair balance between input and outputs. Waitrose applies equity theory model to keep fairness between input and outputs. Individuals gives more efforts in the peak time to achieve short-term goals of company. On the other hand, it offers incentives as reward to the staff on the basis of their performance. Waitrose promotes teamworking within workplace while staff develops creative working environment to leads profitability within organization. Work promotion opportunity provides by organization whereas individuals gives outstanding performance while dealing with complex tasks so that get chance to be part of promotional opportunity (Soni and Soni, 2016). It offers farness in employment policy, promotional policy and others that encourages individuals to give loyal performance within workplace. thus, Waitrose enables to influence team to put more efforts to achieve it’s goal. the major drawback of the model is this it requires management expertise which can keep fair balance between input and output.
Management of Waitrose uses this technique to motivate individuals and team within workplace. Managers offers two type rewards i.e. incentive and recognition. Incentive as rewards offers by company to the staff during peak time so that enables to influence individuals to give high performance and gains more profit except salary. While recognition as rewards uses by employer to retain it’s skilful employees within company for long time so that they help to achieve long-term goals (Valaei and et.al., 2016).
Flexible working hours
It is another technique to influence individuals and team members to work effectively within job place. For example, Waitrose offers flexible working hours facility to the staff whereas individuals get chance to spend time with their family and encourages them to complete number of tasks before deadline. Thus, company maintains wellbeing of individuals and team within organization.
Organization should use 360 feedback strategy that helps company to understand effectiveness of strategy implication and leads improvement in business activities. By this strategy easy to maintain wellbeing of individuals and team members for the workplace and builds good relationship between employer and employees.
Evaluation of effective as opposed to ineffective team
Effective team are essential for strong foundation and better performance of company in competitive market as they face various challenges together for smooth operation of enterprise. Manager of Waitrose through using different strategies is able to coordinate and co-operate efforts of different individual towards achievement of common goals (Kloak, 2017). Therefore various characteristics of effective team are as follows:
- Effective communication: One of the main characteristics of effective team is better, open and clear communication between individual that are working together for growth and success of Waitrose in competitive environment. Manager through providing definite organisation and roles and responsibilities that need to be performed by each member helps in better communication and coordination so that task can be completed within limited time frame. Employees of Waitrose communicate with each other honesty and openly that helps in building strong relationship with each other and enhancement of each performance.
- Employees support each others: Each individual within Waitrose support others people in case it is facing problem or trouble in completion of task. Team member tries to understand each other views, ideas and respect each other thus it helps in providing healthy and social environment thus motivates individual to work hard (Kumari, 2017). Leaders of company also provide proper guidance and direction so that limited mistake or error can take place and individual can effectively work in a team.
- Accountability and responsibilities: Team member of Waitrose know about their roles and responsibilities that need to be performed so that customers needs can be fulfilled. Employees are accountable and take whole responsibilities to perform task in best possible manner so that errors can be avoided. Waitrose team member does not blame each other for mistake done by someone they individually takes responsibilities for mistake that they have made. Therefore such effective coordination between diverse individual helps in smooth operation of various activities of Waitrose.
On the other hand ineffective team have just opposite characteristics so manager of Waitrose need to plan strategies in order to avoid formulation of ineffective team for overall growth and success of enterprise in competitive market. Therefore various characteristics of ineffective team are illustrated below:
- Lack of commitment to goals: There are few individual or team member of Waitrose that are not interested in common goals of company. Team member always give importance on individual goals, objectives that have lead to conflict and ineffective coordination between team members for completion of particular task (Jamshed, Nor and Bakar, 2017). Therefore leaders of Waitrose need to influenced individual through explaining about vision of company so that they can be committed to common goals of team.
- Lack of camaraderie: Some of the team member feel that they are not crucial part of organisation thus they perceive their own ideas, views and belief. There are various individual from different background, culture and tradition that are working together so that best services can be render to customers. But few team members among all likes to considered or prefer their own ideas that have lead to conflict and hinder smooth operation of enterprise. Thus, leaders of Waitrose have planned to encourage employees to share their ideas in decision making so that feeling of belongingness can be created among individual and they are motivated to work hard for growth of firm.
- No commonality: There are number of Team in Waitrose that have member that belong to different culture and tradition or have interest in particular field. There is no commonality between each member of firm so leaders through open communication and building strong relationship helps in coordinating interest of individual towards company objectives. Therefore each team member of Waitrose makes efforts to work as team or coordinate with each other so that firm can earn maximum amount of profitability.
In order to develop strong and effective team within organisation manager of Waitrose can use Truckman theory so that each individual can put their best. The theory have suggest path that are used by most of team to get high performance or better outcome. There are five stages of development of strong group that is used by leaders of Waitrose are as follows:
- Forming: This is first stage of creation of strong and effective team in the organisation such as individual are unaware about tasks and responsibilities that needs to be performed by each team member. Some of the team members are anxious because they have not understand activities that need to be performed on the other hand few individual are impatience to known about work that they have to perform in a team so that objectives can be achieved (Kreamer and Rogelberg, 2020). Therefore leaders of Waitrose play dominant roles as they are not aware about what need to be done but it last for some time only.
- Storming: It is next stage of group development that states most of employees starting fighting with each others on various issues such as working styles or task need to be performed. At this stage team member of Waitrose faces lot of difficulties as every individual work in different direction with its own view, belief and idea. Therefore it creates problem in coordinating work of individual for accomplishment of particular task for which team have made. So, leader and manager of Waitrose through deciding in advance task that need to be performed by individual tries to reduce conflict and provide supportive working environment to employees so that they can work effectively.
- Norming: Team member at norming stage is able to understand each other or resolve various conflicts that arise between them. Individual start respecting their leaders and other individual that are working in team thus helps in providing better working environment and motivates them to work hard. Team member through open communication are able to know about each other culture and tradition thus able to work together for facing different challenges and making effective utilisation of available opportunities. Member of Waitrose also share their feedback about the way performance of firm can be improved so that better outcome can be gained. Therefore at this stage team member become high committed and dedicated towards achievement of specific goals.
- Performing: Each individual with team of Waitrose is aware about its roles, interrelationship with each other and able to effective perform its task so that company can grow and expand its business. Team member know about structure, standard polices and process that need to be followed by individual in order to get particular outcome (Van Dun and Wilderom, 2016,). Leaders of Waitrose delegate some of the authority and responsibilities to team member so that task can be completed within limited time frame and cost. Individual can easily perform their task and contributed towards enhancement of company market share and profitability.
- Adjourning: It is last stage where everything comes to end as task is completed, objectives have been achieved and team began to break. Every team have to close or disband after some time due to competition of task or restructuring of organisation. Therefore, some of the individual faced difficult to work separately or accept new changes due to strong relationship between various employees.
Concept and Philosophies of OB and the way they influence on behaviour of individual
Concept of organisational behaviour is based on behaviour, nature of individual and working environment of company. It can also be stated ethical values, moral principle of individual and organisation that helps in building and maintaining strong brand image in competitive market. Path goal theory of leadership and Social capital can be used to evaluate organisational behaviour of firm are as follows:
Path goals theory: It is type of leadership styles that matches with behaviour of employees and working environment so that overall objectives of organisation can be achieved. Main objectives of path goal theory are to enhance employee’s motivation level, engagement and satisfaction so that Waitrose can grow and expand its business operation (Mitchell, Wynia and Golden, 2017). Directives, achievement, participative and supportive are four styles of leadership such as:
- Directive: Leaders of Waitrose guide and support individual those are not able to perform task so that they can enhance their performance and work effectively for overall achievement of objectives. Team member knows about particular task that need to be performed in specific manner so that best outcome can be gained. Therefore positive impact of directive leaderships is that employees without wasting time, effort and energy can completed various activities. On the other hand most of the employees highly depend upon leaders to direct and guide them thus it reduces their skills and creativity.
- Achievement: Waitrose leaders in order to make optimum utilisation of individual capabilities have set challenges goals and motivated them to work hard for attainment of common objectives. Leaders through identifying employees that have specialised knowledge, skills and capabilities to perform different task is able to set particular goals that it need to achieve in limited time frame (Saenkoand et.al., 2018). Therefore such interaction between human behaviour and leadership styles helps in getting maximum outcome so that Waitrose can earn sufficient amount of profit. Positive impact is that helps in better utilisation of resources at the same time it forces employees to work hard so may lead to dissatisfaction and high employment turnover.
- Participative: This type of leadership styles is also used by leaders of Waitrose in order to enhance performance and productivity of various individual. Leaders encourage employees or team member to take active part in decision making of firm thus it helps in creating feeling of sense of belongingness and motivated them to put their best. Thus, this leadership styles helps in reducing employees turnover and chance of absentees as they like to work for such a organisation that give values to their ideas. Whereas negative impact of participative leadership is that lot of time, efforts is need to consult with view, ideas of each individual while may lead to delay in satisfaction of customers needs and wants.
- Supportive leadership: Waitrose leader’s emphasis on providing supportive and friendly environment to all employees so that they can freely perform different task. Leaders of company try to understand grievances and problem that are faced by team member while performing various functions. Thus it can formulate effective strategies to resolve their grievance and improve their performance so that company can increase its sales volume and profitability. Satisfaction of Psychological need of individual helps in increasing performance of each employees and helps company in gaining competitive advantages (Fortwengel, SchÃ¼ÃŸler and Sydow, 2017). Leaders of Waitrose build strong relationship among employees and reward, recognise and respect efforts that are made by different individual thus it helps in brining equality and satisfaction of people need beyond their expectation. It motivated and inspire other individual to enhance performance as similar to other people that are rewarded and recognised by leaders.
Social capital theory: It is another theory that states that social need of employees needs to be fulfilled in order to get maximum outcome. Manager through providing definite organisational structure and clearly stating interrelationship between each individual is able to satisfy their social needs. Employees of Waitrose like to work with such a organisation that gives importance, respects and recognition to efforts of each individual (Yilmaz and Flouris, 2017). Proper working hours, regular interval provided by managers of Waitrose helps team member to easily share their ideas to each other and satisfaction of their needs in effective manner. One of the positive impacts of social capital theory is that it helps in building and maintaining strong brand image of enterprise and better customer’s satisfaction due to improvement in performance of team members.
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It can be concluded form the above analysis that organisation culture plays important roles in satisfaction of employees need that are working in the firm. Manager through continuously monitoring performance and productivity of each employee is able to ensure that politics is not played by different individual. It can also be concluded that leader through distributing power among employees to take decision helps in satisfaction of customers wants within minimum time limit. Both process and contented motivational theory used by manager of Waitrose to inspire each individual to raise their level of performance so that company can easily achieve its objectives. At last it can be concluded that good working environment and effective management of diverse individual contributed towards increasing sales volume and profitability.
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